OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 25, Iss. 20 — Oct. 15, 1986
  • pp: 3610–3615

Characterization of the topography of vacuum-deposited films. 2: Ellipsometry

Ivo J. M. M. Raayjmakers and Maarten J. Verkerk  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 25, Issue 20, pp. 3610-3615 (1986)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (999 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



In many technologies a means of characterizing the surfaces of vacuum-deposited metal films would be desirable. Following the first part of this work, which dealt with light scattering, we have assessed ellipsometry as a possible tool. For surfaces with a root-mean-square roughness smaller than 40 nm the influence of roughness on ellipsometric parameters ψ and Δ was observed to be very small (<0.02°/nm) at a wavelength of 632.8 nm. These surfaces however had a different morphology as shown by a scanning electron microscope. Rougher surfaces showed a dominant decrease in ψ and a relatively smaller decrease in Δ with increasing roughness. Besides the influence of surface roughness, the particular morphology of the surface and the constitution of the residual gas atmosphere during evaporation of the Al thin film were shown to be also of significance. For this reason, together with the inability to discriminate between roughness values in the 0–40-nm range, ellipsometry at 632.8 nm wavelength is less suitable for measuring surface roughness of vacuum-deposited films.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: February 18, 1986
Published: October 15, 1986

Ivo J. M. M. Raayjmakers and Maarten J. Verkerk, "Characterization of the topography of vacuum-deposited films. 2: Ellipsometry," Appl. Opt. 25, 3610-3615 (1986)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. J. Verkerk, I. J. M. M. Raaijmakers, “Topographic Characterization of Vacuum-Deposited Thin Films by Optical Methods,” Thin Solid Films 124, 271 (1985). [CrossRef]
  2. M. J. Verkerk, I. J. M. M. Raaijmakers, “Characterization of the Topography of Vacuum-Deposited Films. 1: Light Scattering,” Appl. Opt. 25, 0000 (1986), same issue. [CrossRef]
  3. C. F. Fenstermaker, F. L. McCrackin, “Errors arising from Surface Roughness in Ellipsometric Measurement of the Refractive Index of a Surface,” Surf. Sci. 16, 85 (1969). [CrossRef]
  4. K. Vedam, M. Malin, “Characterization of Real Surfaces of Vitreous Silica by Ellipsometry,” Mater. Res. Bull. 9, 1053 (1974). [CrossRef]
  5. K. Riedling, “Error Effects in the Ellipsometric Investigation of Thin Films,” Thin Solid Films 75, 355 (1981). [CrossRef]
  6. E. L. Church, J. M. Zavada, “Effects of Surface Microroughness in Ellipsometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1136 (1976); “Residual Surface Roughness of Diamond-Turned Optics,” Appl. Opt. 14, 1788 (1975). [PubMed]
  7. J. P. Marton, E. C. Chang, “Surface Roughness Interpretation of Ellipsometer Measurements using the Maxwell Garnett Theory,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5008 (1974). [CrossRef]
  8. D. E. Aspnes, “Optical Properties of Thin Films,” Thin Solid Films 89, 249 (1982). [CrossRef]
  9. D. E. Aspnes, J. B. Theeten, F. Hottier, “Investigation of Effective Medium Models of Microscopic Surface Roughness by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 20, 3292 (1979). [CrossRef]
  10. T. V. Vorburger, K. C. Ludema, “Ellipsometry of Rough Surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 19, 561 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Smith, “Effect of Surface Roughness on Ellipsometry of Aluminium,” Surf. Sci. 56, 252 (1976). [CrossRef]
  12. I. Ohlidal, F. Lukes, “Ellipsometric Parameters of Rough Surfaces and of a System Substrate—Thin Film with Rough Boundaries,” Opt. Acta 19, 817 (1972); I. Ohlidal, F. Lukes, K. Navratil, “Rough Silicon Surfaces Studied by Optical Methods,” Surf. Sci. 45, 91 (1974). [CrossRef]
  13. P. M. Lonardo, “Testing a New Optical Sensor for In-Process Detection of Surface Roughness,” Ann. CIRP 27, 531 (1978).
  14. J. R. Blanco, P. J. McMarr, K. Vedam, “Roughness Measurements by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3773 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. M. A. Azzam, H. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).
  16. M. E. Pedinoff, O. M. Stafsudd, “Multiple Angle Ellipsometric Analysis of Surface Layers and Surface Layer Contaminants,” Appl. Opt. 21, 518 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. E. Aspnes, J. B. Theeten, F. Hottier, “Investigation of Effective Medium Models of Microscopic Surface Roughness by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 20, 3292 (1979). [CrossRef]
  18. M. Erman, “Ellipsométrie Spectroscopique du Proche IR au Proche UV: Appareillage et Methodologie,” Thesis, U. Orsay, France (1982).
  19. J. B. Theeten, R. P. H. Chang, D. E. Aspnes, T. E. Adams, “In Situ Measurement and Analysis of Plasma Grown GaAs Oxides with Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 378 (1980). [CrossRef]
  20. H. Arwin, D. E. Aspnes, “Unambiguous Determination of Thickness and Dielectric Function of Thin Films by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 113, 101 (1984). [CrossRef]
  21. D. E. Aspnes, “Studies of Surface, Thin Film and Interface Properties by Automatic Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 18, 289 (1981). [CrossRef]
  22. J. H. Halford, F. K. Chin, J. E. Norman, “Optical Constants of Ultrapure Al Films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 786 (1973). [CrossRef]
  23. R. W. Fane, W. E. J. Neal, “Optical Constants of Aluminium Films Related to the Vacuum Environment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 790 (1970). [CrossRef]
  24. A. C. Nyce, L. P. Skolnick, “Optical Constants of Bulk and Thin Film Aluminium at 6328 Å,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 792 (1975). [CrossRef]
  25. H. M. O’Bryan, “The Optical Constants of Several Metals in Vacuum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 26, 122 (1936). [CrossRef]
  26. J. F. de Torre, T. G. Knorr, D. A. Vaughan, “Application of Ellipsometry to the Study of Phenomena on Surfaces Prepared in Ultra-High Vacuum,” in Proceedings, Symposium on Ellipsometry in the Measurement of Surfaces and Thin Films (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC, 1964), pp. 245–254.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited