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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 25, Iss. 21 — Nov. 1, 1986
  • pp: 3896–3898

Anomalous side-shifted multimode spectra in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides

M. De Micheli and Philip St. J. Russell  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 25, Issue 21, pp. 3896-3898 (1986)

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We report the presence of a curious and highly reproducible effect in multimode lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by proton exchange (PE) in molten benzoic acid at temperatures ranging from 160°C to ~250°C. The spectral lines in the mode spectra of these guides (measured using a prism coupler) are anomalously side-shifted out of the expected geometrical plane. Transforming these measurements back into the plane of the waveguide, we find that the direction of scattering (relative to the crystal axis) is extremely precise (<1% deviation about a mean), and that the effect can be explained by postulating the existence of precisely oriented, stress-induced gratinglike structures (with irregular periods in the 10–70-μm range) in the guides.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: December 16, 1985
Published: November 1, 1986

M. De Micheli and Philip St. J. Russell, "Anomalous side-shifted multimode spectra in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Opt. 25, 3896-3898 (1986)

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  1. C. E. Rice, J. L. Jackel, “Structural Changes with Composition and Temperature in Rhombohedral LiNbO3,” Mater. Res. Bull. 19, 915 (1984). [CrossRef]
  2. J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, “Proton Exchange for High Index Waveguides in LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 607 (1982).
  3. D. F. Clark, A. C. G. Nutt, K. K. Wong, P. J. R. Laybourn, R. M. De La Rue, “Characterization of Proton-Exchanged Slab Optical Waveguides in X-cut LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 6218 (1983). [CrossRef]
  4. M. De Micheli, J. Botineau, P. Sibillot, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. Papuchon, “Fabrication and Characterisation of Titanium-Indiffused Proton Exchanged Waveguides in Lithium Niobate,” Opt. Commun. 42, 101 (1982). [CrossRef]
  5. M. De Micheli et al., “Crystalline and Optical Quality of Proton Exchanged Waveguides,” in Technical Digest, Fifth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication–Eleventh European Conference on Optical Communication, Venice (1985), p. 55.
  6. M. De Micheli, J. Vollmer, J. P. Barety, S. Neveu, “Postdead-line paper n∘9/A3 “Proton Exchange in LiNbO3: Temperature and Water Influence during the Process,” IEE Conf. Publ. London 227, (1983).
  7. M. De Micheli, “Nonlinear Interaction in LiNbO3 Guides,” in New Direction in Guided Waves and Coherent Optics, Vol. 2 (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, The Hague1982), p. 495.

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