OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 25, Iss. 3 — Feb. 1, 1986
  • pp: 431–437

Reflectance and albedo differences between wet and dry surfaces

Sean A. Twomey, Craig F. Bohren, and John L. Mergenthaler  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 25, Issue 3, pp. 431-437 (1986)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.25.000431


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1089 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

It is commonly observed that natural multiple-scattering media such as sand and soils become noticeably darker when wet. The primary reason for this is that changing the medium surrounding the particles from air to water decreases their relative refractive index, hence increases the average degree of forwardness of scattering as determined by the asymmetry parameter (mean cosine of the scattering angle). As a consequence, incident photons have to be scattered more times before reemerging from the medium and are, therefore, exposed to a greater probability of being absorbed. A simple theory incorporating this idea yields results that are in reasonable agreement with the few measurements available in the literature, although there are differences. Our measurements of the reflectance of sand wetted with various liquids are in reasonably good agreement with the simple theory. We suggest that the difference between reflectances of wet and dry surfaces may have implications for remote sensing.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: September 16, 1985
Published: February 1, 1986

Citation
Sean A. Twomey, Craig F. Bohren, and John L. Mergenthaler, "Reflectance and albedo differences between wet and dry surfaces," Appl. Opt. 25, 431-437 (1986)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-25-3-431


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. K. M. Nagler, S. D. Soules, “Cloud Photography from Gemini 4 Spaceflight,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 46, 522 (1965).
  2. J. R. Hope, “Path of Heavy Rainfall Photographed from Space,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 47, 371 (1966).
  3. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).
  4. C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).
  5. P. Debye, “Der Lichtdruck auf Kugeln von beliebigem Material,” Ann. Phys. 30, 57 (1909). [CrossRef]
  6. J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light Scattering in Planetary Atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527 (1974). [CrossRef]
  7. H. C. van de Hulst, K. Grossman, “Multiple Light Scattering in Planetary Atmospheres,” in The Atmospheres of Venus and Mars, J. C. Brandt, M. B. McEvoy, Eds. (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1968), p. 35.
  8. H. C. van de Hulst, Multiple Light Scattering, 2 Vols. (Academic, New York, 1980).
  9. S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Oxford U. P., London, 1950;Radiative Transfer reprinted by Dover, New York, 1960).
  10. S. Twomey, C. F. Bohren, “Simple Approximations for Calculations of Absorption in Clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 2086 (1980). [CrossRef]
  11. C. F. Bohren, “Multiple Scattering at the Beach,” Weatherwise 36, 197 (1983). [CrossRef]
  12. S. R. Weast, Ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1985), p. E371.
  13. W. D. Sellers, Physical Climatology (University of Chicago, Chicago, 1965).
  14. P. M. Kuhn, V. E. Suomi, “Airborne Observations of Albedo with a Beam Reflector,” J. Meteorol. 15, 172 (1958). [CrossRef]
  15. K. Y. Kondratyev, Radiation Characteristics of the Atmosphere and the Earth's Surface (Gidrometeorologicheskoe Press, Leningrad;Radiation Characteristics of the Atmosphere and the Earth's Surface translated by Amerind Publishing Co., New Dehli, 1973).
  16. R. Geiger, The Climate Near the Ground (Harvard U. P., Cambridge, MA, 1965).
  17. K. Büttner, E. Sutter, “Die Abkühlungsgrosse in den Dünen etc.,” Strahlentherapie 54, 156 (1935).
  18. E. A. Milne, “Thermodynamics of the Stars,” in Handbuch der Astrophysik 3/1, 65 (1930).Reprinted in Selected Papers on the Transfer of Radiation, D. H. Menzel, Ed. (Dover, New York, 1966). [CrossRef]
  19. M. Planck, The Theory of Heat Radiation (Dover, New York, 1959).
  20. H. von Helmholtz, Treatise on Physiological Optics, Vol. 1 (Dover, New York, 1962).
  21. A. Angström, “The albedo of various surfaces of ground,” Geografiska Ann. 7, 323 (1925). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited