Spatially resolved measurements of droplet size and velocity are desirable to aid in matching fuel injectors to combustor flow fields and to support development of two-phase-flow modeling. Interferometric laser-based techniques have been available since the early 1970s. Successful application to practical sprays, however, has been hampered by numerous difficulties. In this paper, two interferometric techniques (visibility/intensity validation and phase/Doppler) are critically examined in characterizing the spray of an air-assist nozzle with Sauter mean diameter < 35 µm. The two techniques are compared to each other and evaluated against a Malvern diffraction unit. With the use of a rotating grating for frequency shifting, the interferometric techniques compare well with each other and to the diffraction method. Due to its broadened size and velocity ranges, the phase/Doppler technique is more easily applied to the spray than is visibility/intensity validation. The consistency of the interferometric results raises questions with regard to the use of Malvern’s most frequently applied distribution model.
T. A. Jackson and G. S. Samuelsen, "Droplet sizing interferometry: a comparison of the visibility and phase/Doppler techniques," Appl. Opt. 26, 2137-2143 (1987)