OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 26, Iss. 17 — Sep. 1, 1987
  • pp: 3607–3614

Ultraviolet quantum detection efficiency of potassium bromide as an opaque photocathode applied to microchannel plates

Oswald H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, J. Sokolowski, and M. Lampton  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 26, Issue 17, pp. 3607-3614 (1987)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1108 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We have measured the quantum detection efficiency (QDE) of potassium bromide as a photocathode applied directly to the surface of a microchannel plate over the 250–1600Å wavelength range. The contributions of the photocathode material in the channels and on the interchannel web to the QDE have been determined. Two broad peaks in the QDE centered at ∼450 and ∼1050 Å are apparent, the former with ∼50% peak QDE and the latter with ∼40% peak QDE. The photoelectric threshold is observed at ∼1600 Å, and there is a narrow QDE minimum at ∼750 Å which correlates with 2× the band gap energy for KBr. The angular variation of the QDE from 0 to 40° to the channel axis has also been examined. The stability of KBr with time is shown to be good with no significant degradation of QDE at wavelengths below 1216 Å over a 15-day period in air.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: May 11, 1987
Published: September 1, 1987

Oswald H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, J. Sokolowski, and M. Lampton, "Ultraviolet quantum detection efficiency of potassium bromide as an opaque photocathode applied to microchannel plates," Appl. Opt. 26, 3607-3614 (1987)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. C. Martin, S. Bowyer, “Quantum Efficiency of Opaque CsI Photocathodes with Channel Electron Multiplier Arrays in the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4206 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, J. F. Pearson, M. J. Whiteley, M. Lewis, “The Soft X-ray Detection Efficiency of Coated Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 272 (1984). [CrossRef]
  3. M. P. Kowalski, G. G. Fritz, R. G. Cruddace, A. E. Unzicker, N. Swanson, “Quantum Efficiency of Cesium Iodide Photocathodes at soft X-ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2440 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. O. H. W. Siegmund, E. Everman, J. V. Vallerga, S. Labov, J. Bixler, M. Lampton, “High Quantum Efficiency Opaque CsI Photocathodes for the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 687, 117 (1986).
  5. S. W. Duckett, P. H. Metzger, “Intrinsic Photoemission of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. A 137, 953 (1965).
  6. P. Metzger, “On the Quantum Efficiencies of Twenty Alkali Halides in the 12–21 eV Region,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 26, 1879 (1965). [CrossRef]
  7. B. L. Henke, J. Liesegang, S. D. Smith, “Soft X-ray Induced Secondary Electron Emission from Semiconductors and Insulators: Models and Measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 19, 3004 (1979). [CrossRef]
  8. T. H. DiStefano, W. E. Spicer, “Photoemission from CsI: Experiment,” Phys. Rev. 7, 1554 (1973). [CrossRef]
  9. O. H. W. Siegmund, R. F. Malina, K. Coburn, D. Werthiemer, “MicroChannel Plate EUV Detectors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 776 (1984). [CrossRef]
  10. C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, “Wedge and Strip Anodes for Centroid-Finding Position-Sensitive Photon and Particle Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981). [CrossRef]
  11. R. F. Malina, P. Jelinsky, S. Bowyer, “Calibration Techniques and Results in the Soft X-ray and Extreme Ultraviolet for Components of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite,” Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 154 (1985).
  12. G. R. Carruthers, “Apollo 16 Far-Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph: Instrument and Operations,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2501 (1973). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Llacer, E. L. Garwin, “Electron-Phonon Interaction in Alkali Halides. I. The Transport of Secondary Electrons with Energies Between 0.25 and 7.5 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2766 (1969). [CrossRef]
  14. K. I. Grais, A. M. Bastawros, “A Study of Secondary Electron Emission in Insulators and Semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5239 (1972). [CrossRef]
  15. J. C. Phillips, “Ultraviolet Absorption of Insulators. III. fcc Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. A 136, 1705 (1964).
  16. M. Antinori, A. Balzarotti, M. Piacentini, “High-Resolution Reflection Spectra of Alkali Halides in the Far Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 1541 (1973). [CrossRef]
  17. G. W. Rubloff, “Far-Ultraviolet Reflectance Spectra and the Electronic Structure of Ionic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 662 (1972). [CrossRef]
  18. G. Baldini, B. Bosacchi, “Optical Properties of Alkali-Halide Crystals,” Phys. Rev. 166, 863 (1968). [CrossRef]
  19. H. R. Philipp, H. Ehrenreich, “Intrinsic Optical Properties of Alkali Halides,” Phys. Rev. 131, 2016 (1963). [CrossRef]
  20. F. C. Brown, C. Gahwiller, H. Fujita, A. B. Kunz, W. Scheifly, N. Carrera, “Extreme Ultraviolet Spectra of Ionic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 2126 (1970). [CrossRef]
  21. R. C. Taylor, M. C. Hettrick, R. F. Malina, “Maximizing the Quantum Efficiency of MicroChannel Plate Detectors: The Collection of Photoelectrons from the Interchannel Web Using an Electric Field,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 171 (1983). [CrossRef]
  22. M. A. Barstow, G. W. Fraser, S. R. Milward, “Imaging MicroChannel Plate Detectors for XUV Sky Survey Experiments,” Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 352 (1985).
  23. G. W. Fraser, “The Electron Detection Efficiency of MicroChannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 206, 445 (1983). [CrossRef]
  24. M. J. Whiteley, J. F. Pearson, G. W. Fraser, M. A. Barstow, “The Stability of CsI Coated MicroChannel Plate Array X-Ray Detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 224, 287 (1984). [CrossRef]
  25. M. Cardona, R. Haensel, D. W. Lynch, B. Sonntag, “Optical Properties of the Rubidium and Cesium Halides in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1117 (1970). [CrossRef]
  26. E. B. Saloman, J. S. Pearlman, B. L. Henke, “Evaluation of High Efficiency CsI and CuI Photocathodes for Soft X-Ray Diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 19, 749 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited