OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 26, Iss. 23 — Dec. 1, 1987
  • pp: 5055–5060

Designs and devices for optical bidirectional associative memories

Clark C. Guest and Robert TeKolste  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 26, Issue 23, pp. 5055-5060 (1987)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (936 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The bidirectional associative memory (BAM) is a powerful neural network paradigm that is well suited to optical implementation. The BAM is heteroassociative (of which autoassociative operation is a special case) and is guaranteed to converge to a stable final state regardless of the connection weight matrix used. The BAM is placed in a conceptual framework that facilitates comparison with other neural network models. Variations on the BAM such as the bidirectional optimal memory (BOM), the competitive BAM (CBAM), and the adaptive BAM (ABAM) indicate some of the interesting directions this simple structure may evolve, leading in a natural progression toward the power of a model such as the Carpenter-Grossberg ART. The simplicity of the BAM invites uncomplicated optical implementations. BAM designs based on optical matrix—vector multipliers (MVMs) and on volume holographic connections are presented. Spatial light modulator (SLM) device designs currently under development to support the MVM BAMs are given.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: August 10, 1987
Published: December 1, 1987

Clark C. Guest and Robert TeKolste, "Designs and devices for optical bidirectional associative memories," Appl. Opt. 26, 5055-5060 (1987)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. B. Kosko, “Bidirectional Associative Memories,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC (1987), in press.
  2. J. J. Hopfield, “Neural Networks and Physical Systems with Emergent Collective Computational Abilities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79, 2554 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. A. Cohen, S. Grossberg, “Absolute Stability of Global Pattern Formation and Parallel Memory Storage by Competitive Neural Networks,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. SMC-13, 815 (1983). [CrossRef]
  4. G. A. Carpenter, S. Grossberg, “A Massively Parallel Architecture for a Self-Organizing Neural Pattern Recognition Machine,” Comput. Vision Graphics Image Process. 37, 54 (1987). [CrossRef]
  5. B. Kosko, C. Guest, “Optical Bidirectional Associative Memories”, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.758, (1987), in press.
  6. W. S. McCulloch, W. Pitts, “A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Imminent in Nervous Activity,” Bull. Math. Biophys. 5, 115 (1943). [CrossRef]
  7. T. Kohonen, Self-Organization and Associative Memory (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984).
  8. B. Kosko, “Adaptive Bidirectional Associative Memories,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4947 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. Kosko, “Competitive Adaptive Bidirectional Associative Memories,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Neural Networks, San Diego (June 1987).
  10. J. J. Hopfield, “Neurons with Graded Response have Collective Computational Properties Like Those of Two-State Neurons,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81, 3088 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. R. Knight, “Holographic Associative Memory and Processor,” Appl. Opt. 14, 1088 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Sakaguchi, N. Nishida, T. Nemoto, “A New Associative Memory System Utilizing Holography,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-19, 1174 (1970). [CrossRef]
  13. V. N. Morozov, “Associative Parallel Search Memory,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 1 (1978). [CrossRef]
  14. C. C. Guest, T. K. Gaylord, “Truth-Table Look-Up Optical Processing Utilizing Binary and Residue Arithmetic,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1201 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. N. H. Farhat, D. Psaltis, A. Prata, E. Paek, “Optical Implementation of the Hopfield Model,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1469 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. D. Fisher, J. N. Lee, “Optical Associative Processing Elements with Versatile Adaptive Learning Capabilities,” Technical Digest of OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Computing, vol. 11, pp. 137–140, March1987.
  17. N. H. Farhat, “Architectures for Optoelectronic Analogs of Self-Organizing Neural Networks,” Opt. Lett. 12, 448 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Owechko, G. J. Dunning, E. Marom, B. H. Soffer, “Holographic Associative Memory with Nonlinearities in the Correlation Domain,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1900 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. Jannson, C. Karagaleff, H. Stoll, “Photorefractive LiNbO3 as a Storage Medium for High-Density Optical Neural Networks,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(13), P 64 (1986). [CrossRef]
  20. E. G. Paek, D. Psaltis, “Optical Associative Memory Using Fourier Transform Holograms,” Opt. Eng. 26, 428 (1987). [CrossRef]
  21. D. Z. Anderson, M. C. Erie, “Resonator Memories and Optical Novelty Filters,” Opt. Eng. 25, 434 (1987). [CrossRef]
  22. R. A. Athale, C. B. Friedlander, B. G. Kushner, “Attentive Associative Architectures and Their Implications to Optical Computing,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 625, 179 (1986).
  23. R. A. Athale, BDM Corp.; personal correspondence (May1986).
  24. S. C. Esener, J. H. Wang, T. J. Drabik, M. A. Title, S. H. Lee, “One-Dimensional Silicon/PLZT Spatial Light Modulators,” Opt. Eng. 26,406 (1987). [CrossRef]
  25. R. Hecht-Nielsen, “Nearest Matched Filter Classification of Spatiotemporal Patterns,” Appl. Opt. 26,1892 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. P. J. van Heerden, “Theory of Optical Information Storage in Solids,” Appl. Opt. 2,393 (1963). [CrossRef]
  27. T. K. Gaylord, “Digital Data Storage,” in Handbook of Optical Holography, H. J. Caulfield, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1979), pp. 379–414.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited