Two-stage photovoltaic concentrators with Fresnel lenses as primaries and dielectric totally internally reflecting nonimaging concentrators as secondaries are discussed. The general design principles of such two-stage systems are given. Their optical properties are studied and analyzed in detail using computer ray trace procedures. It is found that the two-stage concentrator offers not only a higher concentration or increased acceptance angle, but also a more uniform flux distribution on the photovoltaic cell than the point focusing Fresnel lens alone. Experimental measurements with a two-stage prototype module are presented and compared to the analytical predictions.
© 1987 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: December 20, 1986
Published: April 1, 1987
Xiaohui Ning, Joseph O’Gallagher, and Roland Winston, "Optics of two-stage photovoltaic concentrators with dielectric second stages," Appl. Opt. 26, 1207-1212 (1987)