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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 27, Iss. 10 — May. 15, 1988
  • pp: 1934–1938

Differential absorption lidar signal averaging

William B. Grant, Alan M Brothers, and James R. Bogan  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 27, Issue 10, pp. 1934-1938 (1988)

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This paper presents experimental results using an atmospheric backscatter dual CO2 laser differential absorption lidar (DIAL). It is shown that DIAL signals can be averaged to obtain an N−1/2 dependence decrease in the standard deviation of the ratio of backscattered returns from two lasers, where N is the number of DIAL signals averaged, and that such a lidar system can make measurements of gas concentrations with a precision of 0.7% in absorptance over 75 m in a short measurement time when the signal strength is high. Factors that eventually limit the rate of improvement in the SNR, such as changes in the ratio of the absorption and/or backscatter at the two laser frequencies and background noise are discussed. In addition, it is noted that DIAL measurements made using hard-target backscatter often show departures from N−1/2 dependence improvement in the standard deviation, because they are further limited by the combined effects of atmospheric turbulence and speckle, since the relative reproducibility of the speckle pattern on the receiver gives rise to correlations of the lidar signals.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: January 14, 1987
Manuscript Accepted: January 8, 1988
Published: May 15, 1988

William B. Grant, Alan M Brothers, and James R. Bogan, "Differential absorption lidar signal averaging," Appl. Opt. 27, 1934-1938 (1988)

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  1. W. B. Grant, “Laser Remote Sensing Techniques,” in Laser Spectroscopy and Its Applications, L. J. Radziemski, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, Eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1987), p. 565.
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  8. N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, “Assessment of Relative Error Sources in IR DIAL Measurement Accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2690 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, C. R. Menyuk, “Error Reduction in Laser Remote Sensing: Combined Effects of Cross Correlation and Signal Averaging,” Appl. Opt. 24, 118 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, “Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere,” Science 235, 37 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  12. W. Staehr, W. Lahmann, C. Weitkamp, “Range-Resolved Differential Absorption Lidar: Optimization of Range and Sensitivity,” Appl. Opt.24, 1950 (1985) and private communication. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  14. R. M. Hardesty, “Measurement of Range-Resolved Water Vapor Concentration by Coherent CO2 Differential Absorption Lidar,” NOAA Tech. Memo WPL-118, Boulder, CO (Mar.1984).
  15. W. B. Grant, J. S. Margolis, A. M. Brothers, D. M. Tratt, “CO2 DIAL Measurements of Water Vapor,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3033 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W. B. Grant, “A Critical Evaluation of Water Vapor Absorption Coefficient Measurements in the 840 to 1100 cm−1 Spectral Region,” JPL Tech. Report 87–34 (15Dec.1987).
  17. M. H. DeGroot, Probability and Statistics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1975), p. 185.
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  19. Y. Sasano, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, “Error Caused by Using a Constant Extinction/Backscattering Ratio in the Lidar Solution,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3929 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, S. T. Shipley, “Ultraviolet Measurements of O3 Profiles in Regions of Spatially Inhomogeneous Aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2827 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. G. Ancellet, R. T. Menzies, “Atmospheric Correlation-Time Measurements and Effects on Coherent Doppler Lidar,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 367 (1987). [CrossRef]
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  23. R. E. Warren, “Effect of Pulse-Pair Correlation on Differential Absorption Lidar,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3472 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. H. Shapiro, “Correlation States of Laser Speckle in Heterodyne Detection,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1883 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. P. H. Flamant, R. T. Menzies, M. J. Kavaya, “Evidence for Speckle Effects on Pulsed CO2 Lidar Signal Returns from Remote Targets,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1412 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. W. B. Grant, “Effect of Differential Spectral Reflectance on DIAL Measurements Using Topographic Targets,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2390 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. P. Vujkovic Cvijin, D. Ignjatijevic, I. Mendas, M. Sreckovic, L. Pantani, P. I. Pippi, “Reflectance Spectra of Terrestrial Surface Materials at CO2 Laser Wavelengths: Effects on DIAL and Geological Remote Sensing,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4323 (1987). [CrossRef]

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