OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 27, Iss. 16 — Aug. 15, 1988
  • pp: 3468–3474

Noise power spectrum analysis of a scanning microdensitometer

Phillip C. Bunch and Richard Van Metter  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 27, Issue 16, pp. 3468-3474 (1988)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.27.003468


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (947 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We have analyzed the principal sources of noise in a commercially available 2-D scanning microdensitometer which we use to estimate the noise power spectra of radiographic films. Two kinds of noise have been observed. One source, associated with the glass platen of the instrument, is correlated from scan to scan. This source of noise limits our ability to measure the NPS of film samples at low sample optical densities. The other major noise source is uncorrelated from scan to scan and increases exponentially with sample optical density. We have measured both of these component noise sources as well as the total instrument noise as a function of instrument density and spatial frequency. A method for minimizing the effects of instrument noise on estimates of the noise power of film samples is described and demonstrated.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: October 2, 1987
Published: August 15, 1988

Citation
Phillip C. Bunch and Richard Van Metter, "Noise power spectrum analysis of a scanning microdensitometer," Appl. Opt. 27, 3468-3474 (1988)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-27-16-3468


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. R. Shaw, “The Equivalent Quantum Efficiency of the Photographic Process,” J. Photogr. Sci. 11, 199 (1963).
  2. P. Fellgett, “Concerning Photographic Grain, Signal-to-Noise Ratio, and Information,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 271 (1953). [CrossRef]
  3. R. C. Jones, “New Method of Describing and Measuring the Granularity of Photographic Materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 799 (1955). [CrossRef]
  4. H. J. Zweig, “Autocorrelation and Granularity. Part I. Theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 805 (1956); H. J. Zweig, “Autocorrelation and Granularity. Part II. Results on Flashed Black and White Emulsions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 812 (1956); H. J. Zweig, “Autocorrelation and Granularity. III. Spatial Frequency Response of the Scanning System and Granularity Correlation Effects Beyond the Aperture,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 238 (1959). [CrossRef]
  5. C. E. Shannon, W. Weaver, The Mathematical Theory of Communication (Illinois U. P., Urbana, 1949).
  6. E. C. Doerner, “Wiener-Spectrum Analysis of Photographic Granularity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 669 (1962). [CrossRef]
  7. E. Klein, G. Langner, “Relations between Granularity, Graininess and the Wiener-Spectrum of the Density Deviations,” J. Photogr. Sci. 11, 177 (1963).
  8. F. J. B. Wall, B. G. Steel, “Implications of the Methods Chosen for the Measurement of the Statistical Properties of Photographic Images,” J. Photogr. Sci. 12, 34 (1964).
  9. M. DeBelder, J. DeKerf, “The Determination of the Wiener Spectrum of Photographic Emulsion Layers with Digital Methods,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 11, 371 (1967).
  10. H. Frieser, “Noise Spectrum of Developed Photographic Layers Exposed by Light, X-rays, and Electrons,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 3, 164 (1959).
  11. R. F. Wagner, “Fast Fourier Digital Quantum Mottle Analysis with Application to Rare Earth Intensifying Screen Systems,” Med. Phys. 4, 157 (1977). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. C. Dainty, R. Shaw, Image Science, Principles, Analysis and Evaluation of Photographic-Type Imaging Processes (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 276–314.
  13. J. Vranckx, P. Breesch, M. DeBelder, “Two-Dimensional Noise Power Spectra of Radiographic Systems,” Photogr. Sci. eng. 28, 134 (1984).
  14. J. M. Sandrik, R. F. Wagner, K. M. Hanson, “Radiographic Screen-Film Noise Power Spectrum: Calibration and Inter-comparison,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3597 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. M. Jenkins, D. G. Watts, Spectral Analysis and Its Applications (Holden-Day, Oakland, CA, 1968), pp. 321–362.
  16. J. S. Bendat, A. G. Piersol, Random Data: Analysis and Measurement Procedures (Wiley, New York, 1986), pp. 291–317.
  17. G. C. Carter, C. H. Knapp, A. H. Nuttall, “Estimation of the Magnitude-Squared Coherence Function Via Overlapped Fast Fourier Transform Processing,” IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoust. AU-21, 337 (1973). [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Lee, P. L. P. Dillon, “A Cross-Power Spectral Method for Improved Measurement of Film Noise Power Spectra,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 767, 250 (1987).
  19. J. S. Bendat, A. G. Piersol, Engineering Applications of Correlation and Spectral Analysis (Wiley, New York, 1980), pp. 273–275.
  20. K. Doi, G. Holje, L-N. Loo, H-P. Chan, J. M. Sandrik, R. J. Jennings, R. F. Wagner, MTF’s and Wiener Spectra of Radiographic Screen-Film Systems, FDA 82-8187 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD, Apr.1982).
  21. P. C. Bunch, R. Shaw, R. L. Van Metter, “Signal-to-Noise Measurements for a Screen–Film System,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum Eng. 454, 154 (1984).
  22. P. D. Welch, “The Use of Fast Fourier Transform for the Estimation of Power Spectra: A Method Based on Time Averaging over Short, Modified Periodograms,” IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoust. AU-15, 70 (1967). [CrossRef]
  23. R. K. Otnes, L. Enochson, Digital Time Series Analysis (Wiley, New York, 1972).
  24. J. M. Sandrik, R. F. Wagner, “Radiographic Screen-Film Noise Power Spectrum: Variation with Microdensitometer Slit Length,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2795 (1981); K. Koedooder, J. Strackee, H. W. Venemax, “A New Method for Microdensitometer Slit Length Correction of Radiographic Noise Power Spectra,” Med. Phys. 13, 469 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited