OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 27, Iss. 16 — Aug. 15, 1988
  • pp: 3503–3510

Imaging extreme ultraviolet spectrometer employing a single toroidal diffraction grating: the initial evaluation

M. C. E. Huber, J. G. Timothy, J. S. Morgan, G. Lemaitre, G. Tondello, E. Jannitti, and P. Scarin  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 27, Issue 16, pp. 3503-3510 (1988)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2093 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A high-efficiency extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging spectrometer has been constructed and tested. The spectrometer employs a concave toroidal grating illuminated at normal incidence in a Rowland circle mounting and has only one reflecting surface. The toroidal grating has been fabricated by a new technique employing an elastically deformable submaster grating which is replicated in a spherical form and then mechanically distorted to produce the desired aspect ratio of the toroidal surface for stigmatic imaging over the selected wavelength range. The fixed toroidal grating used in the spectrometer is then replicated from this surface. Photographic tests and initial photoelectric tests with a 2-D pulse-counting detector system have verified the image quality of the toroidal grating at wavelengths near 600 Å. The results of these initial tests are described in detail, and the basic designs of two instruments which could employ the imaging spectrometer for astrophysical investigations in space are briefly described, namely, a high-resolution EUV spectroheliometer for studies of the solar chromosphere, transition region, and corona and an EUV spectroscopic telescope for studies of nonsolar objects.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: February 2, 1988
Published: August 15, 1988

M. C. E. Huber, J. G. Timothy, J. S. Morgan, G. Lemaitre, G. Tondello, E. Jannitti, and P. Scarin, "Imaging extreme ultraviolet spectrometer employing a single toroidal diffraction grating: the initial evaluation," Appl. Opt. 27, 3503-3510 (1988)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. C. E. Huber, G. Tondello, “Stigmatic Performance of an EUV Spectrograph with a Single Toroidal Grating,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3948 (1979). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Haber, “The Torus Grating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 153 (1950). [CrossRef]
  3. W. C. Cash, “Aspheric Concave Grating Spectrographs,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4518 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Lemaitre, “Coma and Astigmatism Compensated by Elastic Relaxation on Each Mirror Pair of a Two-Mosaic Telescope,” in Optical Telescopes of the Future, F. Pacini, W. Richter, R. N. Wilson, Eds. (European Southern Observatory, Garching bei munchen, 1978), p. 321.
  5. M. C. E. Huber, E. Jannitti, G. Lemaitre, G. Tondello, “Toroidal Grating Obtained on an Elastic Substrate,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2139 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Hyperfine, Inc., 4946 North 63rd St., Boulder, CO 80301, (303) 530-0709.
  7. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980), p. 303.
  8. M. Françon, Optical Interferometry (Academic, New York, 1966), p. 202.
  9. S. Johansson, U. Litzen, “Analysis of 4d–4f Transitions in Fe ii,” Phys. Scr. 10, 121 (1974). [CrossRef]
  10. W. M. Burton, B. A. Powell, “Fluorescence of Tetraphenyl-Butadiene in the Vacuum Ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 12, 87 (1973). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. G. Timothy, “Multi-Anode Microchannel Array Detector Systems: Performance Characteristics,” Opt. Eng. 24, 1066 (1985). [CrossRef]
  12. J. G. Timothy, “Imaging at Soft X-Ray Wavelengths with High-Gain Microchannel Plate Detector Systems,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 691, 35 (1986).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited