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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 27, Iss. 16 — Aug. 15, 1988
  • pp: 3522–3525

Transmission x-ray diffraction grating alignment using a photoelastic modulator

Erik H. Anderson, Alan M. Levine, and Mark L. Schattenburg  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 27, Issue 16, pp. 3522-3525 (1988)

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We have developed a high-resolution alignment technique which utilizes the partial polarization property of fine period transmission gratings. It is especially useful when the grating period is sufficiently small so that there are no visible diffracted orders. This technique uses a photoelastic modulator (PEM) to produce an intensity signal that is proportional to the sine of twice the angle between the grating lines and the PEM crystal axis. The experimentally demonstrated resolution of this technique on 200-nm period gold transmission gratings is better than 1 sec of arc. This technique was developed to align x-ray transmission gratings for spectroscopy and interferometry applications.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: January 26, 1988
Published: August 15, 1988

Erik H. Anderson, Alan M. Levine, and Mark L. Schattenburg, "Transmission x-ray diffraction grating alignment using a photoelastic modulator," Appl. Opt. 27, 3522-3525 (1988)

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  1. H. I. Smith, E. H. Anderson, M. L. Schattenburg, “Planar Techniques for Fabricating X-Ray Diffraction Gratings and Zone Plates,” in Symposium on X-Ray Microscopy, Gottingen, 14–16 Sept. 1983, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 43, X-Ray Microscopy, D. Rudolph, G. Schmahl, Eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 51–61.
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  8. H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1984), p. 370.
  9. Melles Griot 3 FCG 167.
  10. Model PEM-80, Hinds International, Inc., Portland, OR.
  11. Model D656, Davidson Optronics, Inc., West Covina, CA.

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