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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 27, Iss. 22 — Nov. 15, 1988
  • pp: 4782–4786

Aberrations in high aperture conventional and confocal imaging systems

Colin J. R. Sheppard  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 27, Issue 22, pp. 4782-4786 (1988)

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An appropriate form for the expansion of an aberration function for an optical system of high numerical aperture is considered. The effects on the defocus signal of a confocal imaging system of aberrations, high aperture, finite Fresnel number, system configuration, and surface tilt are discussed.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: November 19, 1987
Published: November 15, 1988

Colin J. R. Sheppard, "Aberrations in high aperture conventional and confocal imaging systems," Appl. Opt. 27, 4782-4786 (1988)

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  1. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975), p. 461.
  2. C. J. R. Sheppard, “Imaging in High-Aperture Optical Systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1353 (1987).
  3. N. N. Lebedev, Special Functions and Their Applications (Dover, New York, 1972), p. 198.
  4. C. J. R. Sheppard, A. Choudhury, “Imaging in the Scanning Microscope,” Opt. Acta 24, 1051 (1977). [CrossRef]
  5. C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, “Depth of Field in the Scanning Microscope,” Opt. Lett. 3, 115 (1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. I. J. Cox, D. K. Hamilton, C. J. R. Sheppard, “Observation of Optical Signatures of Materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 604 (1982). [CrossRef]
  7. T. R. Corle, C.-H. Chou, G. S. Kino, “Depth Response of Confocal Optical Microscopes,” Opt. Lett. 11, 770 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. K. Hamilton, C. J. R. Sheppard, “Interferometric Measurements of the Complex Amplitude of the Defocus Signal V(z) in the Confocal Scanning Optical Microscope,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 2708 (1986). [CrossRef]
  9. H. J. Matthews, D. K. Hamilton, C. J. R. Sheppard, “Aberration Measurement by Confocal Interferometry,” to be published.
  10. C. J. R. Sheppard, T. Wilson, “Effects of High Angles of Convergence on V(z) in the Scanning Acoustic Microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 858 (1981). [CrossRef]
  11. A. Atalar, “An Angular Spectrum Approach to Contrast in Reflection Acoustic Microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5130 (1978). [CrossRef]
  12. C. J. R. Sheppard, “Imaging in Optical Systems of Finite Fresnel Number,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1428 (1986). [CrossRef]
  13. J. Stamnes, Waves in Focal Regions (Adam Hilger, London, 1987).
  14. C.-H. Chou, G. S. Kino, “The Evaluation of V(z) in a Type II Reflection Microscope,” unpublished.
  15. K. K. Liang, G. S. Kino, B. T. Khuri-Yakub, “Material Characterisation by the Inversion of V(z),” IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason. SU-32, 213 (1985). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Abramowitz, I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, New York, 1972), Eq. (7.438.39).
  17. C. J. R. Sheppard, D. K. Hamilton, I. J. Cox, “Optical Microscopy with Extended Depth of Field,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 387, 171 (1983). [CrossRef]

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