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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 27, Iss. 23 — Dec. 1, 1988
  • pp: 4913–4919

Absorption and exposure in positive photoresist

Chris A. Mack  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 27, Issue 23, pp. 4913-4919 (1988)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.27.004913


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Abstract

A review of the theory of absorption on microscopic and macroscopic levels is given. This theory is then applied to the absorption of UV light by diazo-type positive photoresist during exposure. A formal treatment of the properties of polychromatic light is given. Using these analyses, the effects of polychromatic exposure of a photoresist are derived. Finally, experimental verification of Beer’s law and determination of the exposure quantum efficiency of a particular photoresist is given.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: December 31, 1987
Published: December 1, 1988

Citation
Chris A. Mack, "Absorption and exposure in positive photoresist," Appl. Opt. 27, 4913-4919 (1988)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-27-23-4913


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References

  1. D. A. Skoog, D. M. West, Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry (Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, New York, 1976), pp. 509–510.
  2. J. M. Koyler et al., “Thermal Properties of Positive Photoresist and Their Relationship to VLSI Processing,” in Proceedings, Kodak Microelectronic Interface ’79 (Oct.1979), pp. 150–165.
  3. J. M. Shaw, M. A. Frisch, F. H. Dill, “Thermal Analysis of Positive Photoresist Films by Mass Spectrometry,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 21, 219 (1977). [CrossRef]
  4. F. H. Dill et al., “Characterization of Positive Photoresist,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. ED-22, 445 (1975). [CrossRef]
  5. W. J. Moore, Physical Chemistry (Prenctice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1972), pp. 753–755.
  6. G. Bachur, “Development of Optical Measurement and Control Systems for Photolithography,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 80, 2 (1976).
  7. A. Minvielle, R. Rice, “Spectral Output Variations in Perkin-Elmer Micraligns,” in Proceedings, Kodak Microelectronic Interface ’79 (Oct.1979), pp. 60–65.
  8. C. A. Mack, “Analytical Expression for the Standing Wave Intensity in Photoresist,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1958 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Albers, D. B. Novotny, “Intensity Dependence of Photo-chemical Reaction Rates for Photoresists,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 1400, (1980). [CrossRef]
  10. C. A. Mack, “PROLITH: A Comprehensive Optical Lithography Model,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 538, 207 (1985).
  11. Reichhold Chemicals, Inc., Warren, NJ 07060.
  12. Fairmount Chemical Co., Inc., Newark, NJ 07105.

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