For the design and optimization of the fabrication condition of distributed-index planar microlenses, it is necessary to evaluate the N.A., focal length, focused spot, and aberration of a fabricated lens. In this paper, a ray tracing method is improved for this purpose, and properties of planar microlenses are evaluated. An ion concentration matrix is proposed to simplify lens design.
© 1988 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: March 31, 1987
Published: February 1, 1988
Xiaofan Zhu and Kenichi Iga, "Characterization of ion-exchanged planar microlenses by ray tracing," Appl. Opt. 27, 468-471 (1988)