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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 27, Iss. 3 — Feb. 1, 1988
  • pp: 468–471

Characterization of ion-exchanged planar microlenses by ray tracing

Xiaofan Zhu and Kenichi Iga  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 27, Issue 3, pp. 468-471 (1988)

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For the design and optimization of the fabrication condition of distributed-index planar microlenses, it is necessary to evaluate the N.A., focal length, focused spot, and aberration of a fabricated lens. In this paper, a ray tracing method is improved for this purpose, and properties of planar microlenses are evaluated. An ion concentration matrix is proposed to simplify lens design.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: March 31, 1987
Published: February 1, 1988

Xiaofan Zhu and Kenichi Iga, "Characterization of ion-exchanged planar microlenses by ray tracing," Appl. Opt. 27, 468-471 (1988)

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  1. M. Oikawa, K. Iga, T. Sanada, “Distributed-Index Planar Microlens Array Prepared from Deep Electromigration,” Electron. Lett. 17, 452 (1981). [CrossRef]
  2. K. Iga, S. Misawa, “Distributed-Index Planar Microlens and Stacked Planar Optics: a Review of Progress,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3388 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. D. Khoe, H. G. Kock, J. A. Luijendijk, C. H. J. van den Brekel, D. Küppers, “Plasma CVD Prepared SiO2/Si3N4 Graded Index Lenses Integrated in Windows of Laser Diode Packages,” in Technical Digest, Seventh European Conference on Optical Communication, Copenhagen (1981), pp. 7.6.1–4.
  4. Y. Koike, Y. Ohtsuka, “Gradient-Index Polymer Materials and Application to Optical Devices,” in Technical Digest, Seventh Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Imaging Systems, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper ThD1.
  5. K. Iga, M. Oikawa, S. Misawa, J. Banno, Y. Kokubun, “Stacked Planar Optics: an Application of the Planar Microlens,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3456 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Oikawa, K. Iga, T. Sanada, N. Yamamoto, K. Nishizawa, “Array of Distributed-Index Planar Microlenses Prepared from Ion Exchange Technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, L296 (1981). [CrossRef]
  7. X. Zhu, K. Iga, “Index Profile of a Planar Microlens by Ion Exchange/Diffusion,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3397 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Misawa, M. Oikawa, K. Iga, “Ray Tracing in a Distributed-Index Planar Microlens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, L589 (1982). [CrossRef]
  9. E. W. Marchand, Gradient Index Optics (Academic, New York, 1978), p. 100.

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