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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 27, Iss. 3 — Feb. 1, 1988
  • pp: 472–475

Glass waveguides made using low melting point nitrate mixtures

Janet L. Jackel  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 27, Issue 3, pp. 472-475 (1988)

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Silver–sodium ion exchange is a commonly used method for making waveguides in glass. This paper discusses two exchange media, KNO3:AgNO3 and AgNO3 in NaNO3:KNO3 which increase the flexibility of the process and decrease its cost. Exchange in the KNO3:AgNO3 can be performed at temperatures as low as 150°C, which is particularly useful for field assisted exchange. When exchange is performed in a NaNO3:KNO3 eutectic with small (≤5 mole %) added quantities of AgNO3, it is possible to control the guide’s surface index within the range Δn ≤ 0.01–0.09 and simultaneously allow the exchange to take place at temperatures as low as 220°C. Because the latter process requires very little of the relatively expensive AgNO3, it can reduce the cost of the process.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: July 15, 1987
Published: February 1, 1988

Janet L. Jackel, "Glass waveguides made using low melting point nitrate mixtures," Appl. Opt. 27, 472-475 (1988)

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  1. T. Findakly, “Glass Waveguides by Ion-Exchange: a Review,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244 (1985) provides a recent review. [CrossRef]
  2. G. Stewart, P. J. R. Laybourn, “Fabrication of Ion-Exchanged Optical Waveguides from Dilute Silver Nitrate Melts,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 930 (1978). [CrossRef]
  3. R. V. Ramaswamy, S. I. Najafi, “Planar, Buried, Ion-Exchanged Glass Waveguides: Diffusion Characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 883 (1986). [CrossRef]
  4. R. V. Ramaswamy, personal communication.
  5. J. M. White, P. F. Heidrich, “Optical Waveguide Refractive Index Profiles Determined from Measurement of Mode Indices: a Simple Analysis,” Appl. Opt. 15, 151 (1976). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Izawa, H. Nakagome, “Optical Waveguides Formed by Electrically Induced Migration of Ions in Glass Plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 584 (1972). [CrossRef]
  7. J. L. Jackel, S. R. Friberg, E. M. Vogel, “Ion Exchanged Optical Waveguides in Glasses with Large Optical Nonlinearities,” to be published.

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