OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 27, Iss. 3 — Feb. 1, 1988
  • pp: 472–475

Glass waveguides made using low melting point nitrate mixtures

Janet L. Jackel  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 27, Issue 3, pp. 472-475 (1988)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.27.000472


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (614 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Silver–sodium ion exchange is a commonly used method for making waveguides in glass. This paper discusses two exchange media, KNO3:AgNO3 and AgNO3 in NaNO3:KNO3 which increase the flexibility of the process and decrease its cost. Exchange in the KNO3:AgNO3 can be performed at temperatures as low as 150°C, which is particularly useful for field assisted exchange. When exchange is performed in a NaNO3:KNO3 eutectic with small (≤5 mole %) added quantities of AgNO3, it is possible to control the guide’s surface index within the range Δn ≤ 0.01–0.09 and simultaneously allow the exchange to take place at temperatures as low as 220°C. Because the latter process requires very little of the relatively expensive AgNO3, it can reduce the cost of the process.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: July 15, 1987
Published: February 1, 1988

Citation
Janet L. Jackel, "Glass waveguides made using low melting point nitrate mixtures," Appl. Opt. 27, 472-475 (1988)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-27-3-472


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. T. Findakly, “Glass Waveguides by Ion-Exchange: a Review,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244 (1985) provides a recent review. [CrossRef]
  2. G. Stewart, P. J. R. Laybourn, “Fabrication of Ion-Exchanged Optical Waveguides from Dilute Silver Nitrate Melts,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 930 (1978). [CrossRef]
  3. R. V. Ramaswamy, S. I. Najafi, “Planar, Buried, Ion-Exchanged Glass Waveguides: Diffusion Characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 883 (1986). [CrossRef]
  4. R. V. Ramaswamy, personal communication.
  5. J. M. White, P. F. Heidrich, “Optical Waveguide Refractive Index Profiles Determined from Measurement of Mode Indices: a Simple Analysis,” Appl. Opt. 15, 151 (1976). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Izawa, H. Nakagome, “Optical Waveguides Formed by Electrically Induced Migration of Ions in Glass Plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 584 (1972). [CrossRef]
  7. J. L. Jackel, S. R. Friberg, E. M. Vogel, “Ion Exchanged Optical Waveguides in Glasses with Large Optical Nonlinearities,” to be published.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited