The power penalty due to modal noise has been quantified and experimentally verified for single-mode fiber systems operating above their cutoff frequency. It is shown how the modal power distribution evolves from one connector/splice to the next and affects the degree of modal noise.
© 1988 Optical Society of America
Santanu K. Das, "Modal noise due to short-wavelength (780–900-nm) transmission in single-mode fibers optimized for 1300 nm," Appl. Opt. 27, 552-556 (1988)