OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 27, Iss. 3 — Feb. 1, 1988
  • pp: 578–583

Temporal fluctuations of laser beam radiation in atmospheric precipitation

A. F. Zhukov, M. V. Kabanov, and R. Sh. Tsvyk  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 27, Issue 3, pp. 578-583 (1988)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.27.000578


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (778 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Atmospheric precipitation, similar to turbulence (and together with it), causes significant intensity fluctuations ( σ 3 2 ) . They also result in characteristic peculiarities of the intensity fluctuation spectrum [W(f)]. The measurements were carried out along the 130–1310-m path. The He–Ne laser generated at λ = 0.6328 μm. The beam diffraction parameter Ω = k α 0 2 / L ( k = 2 π / λ ) is the wavenumber, α0 is the effective beam radius). The measurements were made in collimated, divergent, and focused beams. The receiver’s diameter was 0.1 mm. It was noticed that, in precipitation (snowfall, rain) regardless of the laser beam parameters, the turbulence properties are mainly observed in the low-frequency region and those of precipitation in the high-frequency region. In weak precipitation the spectrum had two maxima, and at heavy precipitation it had its hydrometeoric maximum at frequency f r in the range of several kilohertz. In heavy rains in the region of low frequencies f < f r the spectrum was described by the dependence W(f) ~ f with satisfactory accuracy. In rain at f > f r the spectrum decreased as W(f) ~ f α . In snowfall at f > f r the following dependence was observed: W(f) ~ l βf . The theoretical conclusion f r ~ V/d, where V is the terminal rate and d is the mean particle size, was quantitatively verified. On the 130-m path the experimental values of the normalized variance ( σ 3 2 ) are described by the dependence σ 3 2 = A + N τ , where τ is the optical depth of precipitation. The coefficient N in the divergent beam depends on the particle sizes and increases from 0.3 to 0.8 when increasing the maximum size of particles from 0.1 to 3 cm, respectively. The estimates of turbulence σ T 2 and snowfall σ c 2 contributions to the measured variance σ 3 2 were made assuming that they are additive (i.e., σ 3 2 = σ T 2 + σ c 2 ). When the maximum diameter of the snowfall particles was <5 mm and τ = 0.4–0.5, the empirical dependence σ c 2 = 0 . 07 + 0 . 37 log Ω for Ω values of 0.3–30 was obtained. Measurements of the scattered radiation in the snowfall (Ω = 54, L = 130 m) were carried out at the receiver’s angular distance 10−4 rad from the beam axis; σ 3 2 at τ > 0.2 was saturated at the leve of ~0.85. Here W(f) had its maximum in the region of a few kilohertz. We concluded that the high-frequency region of the intensity fluctuation spectrum in the divergent laser beam had the largest information content. A focused beam was preferable for studying the turbulence in precipitation.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: April 22, 1987
Published: February 1, 1988

Citation
A. F. Zhukov, M. V. Kabanov, and R. Sh. Tsvyk, "Temporal fluctuations of laser beam radiation in atmospheric precipitation," Appl. Opt. 27, 578-583 (1988)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-27-3-578


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. V. E. Zuev, M. V. Kabanov, B. A. Saveliev, “Propagation of Laser Beams in Scattering Media,” Appl. Opt. 8, 137 (1969). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. V. E. Zuev, V. I. Peresypkin, V. Ya. Fadeev, G. A. Koloshin, P. S. Konstantinov, Laser Devices for Providing for Navigation (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1985).
  3. B. Crosignani, P. di Porto, M. Bertolotti, Statistical Properties of Scattered Light (Academic, New York, 1975).
  4. M. Francon, La cranularite laser (speckle) et ses applications en optique (Masson, Paris, 1978).
  5. A. G. Borovoy, M. V. Kabanov, B. A. Saveliev, “Intensity Fluctuations of Optical Radiation in Scattering Media,” Appl. Opt. 14, 2731 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Raymond, K. Wilson, J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 180 (1974). [CrossRef]
  7. T. Wang, S. F. Clifford, “Use of Rainfall-Induced Optical Scintillations to Measure Path-Averaged Rain Parameters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 927 (1975). [CrossRef]
  8. N. A. Vostretsov, A. F. Zhukov, M. V. Kabanov, R. Sh. Tsvyk, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Fiz. Atmos. Okeana 20, 581 (1984).
  9. T. Wang, R. Lataitis, R. S. Lawrence, G. R. Ochs, J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1747 (1982). [CrossRef]
  10. A. F. Zhukov, M. V. Kabanov, R. Sh. Tsvyk, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Fiz. Atmos. Okeana 21, 147 (1985).
  11. N. A. Vostretsov, A. F. Zhukov, M. V. Kabanov, R. Sh. Tsvyk, “Statistical Characteristics of Laser-Beam Intensity Fluctuations in Snowfall,” Preprint N13, Siberian Branch of the U.S.S.R.Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (1982).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited