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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 27, Iss. 6 — Mar. 15, 1988
  • pp: 1126–1134

Retinal laser Doppler velocimetry: toward its computer-assisted clinical use

Benno L. Petrig and Charles E. Riva  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 27, Issue 6, pp. 1126-1134 (1988)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.27.001126


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Abstract

Clinical use of laser Doppler velocimetry of absolute red blood cell velocity Vmax in the center of major retinal vessels becomes possible with recent advances in microcomputer technology. Speed and automation of Doppler photocurrent analysis and identification of proper laser beam positioning are the major requirements in making direct quantitative assessment of retinal hemodynamics a routine diagnostic tool. We discuss our efforts toward achieving this goal and illustrate our current capabilities with examples of changes in retinal blood flow in response to physiologic maneuvers. In veins, Vmax can now be determined on-line. In arteries, current computing speed only supports intermittent on-line data acquisition.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: June 30, 1987
Published: March 15, 1988

Citation
Benno L. Petrig and Charles E. Riva, "Retinal laser Doppler velocimetry: toward its computer-assisted clinical use," Appl. Opt. 27, 1126-1134 (1988)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-27-6-1126


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References

  1. C. E. Riva, G. T. Feke, B. Eberli, V. Benary, “Bidirectional LDV System for Absolute Measurement of Blood Speed in Retinal Vessels,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2301 (1979). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. E. Riva, G. T. Feke, “Laser Doppler Velocimetry in the Measurement of Retinal Blood Flow,” in The Biomedical Laser: Technology and Clinical Application, L. Goldmann, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1981), pp. 135–161.
  3. C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, K. O’Keefe, “Fundus Camera Based Retinal LDV,” Appl. Opt. 20, 117 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, B. L. Petrig, “Blood Flow Velocity and Volumetric Flow Rate in Human Retinal Vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1124 (1985). [PubMed]
  5. D. U. Fluckiger, R. J. Keyes, J. H. Shapiro, “Optical Autodyne Detection: Theory and Experiment,” Appl. Opt. 26, 318 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. We now use the term autodyne detection rather than heterodyne detection to describe our technique. In heterodyne detection, light scattered by moving targets is mixed with a local oscillator most often derived directly from the same laser source. The disadvantage is that the matching of polarization and spatial mode character between these two laser beams is very critical, especially when dealing with a signal beam coming from a human eye. Autodyne detection does not depend on a local oscillator. Rather it is a direct detection scheme involving self-beating between the various frequency components of the received signal beam. In this application a relatively large portion of the signal beam originates from light scattered by the vessel wall and surrounding quasi-stationary tissue and is mixed with the signal light scattered by the red cells.
  7. B. L. Petrig, C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, “Computer Analysis of Laser Doppler Measurements in Retinal Blood Vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25 (Suppl.), 7 (1984).
  8. C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, B. L. Petrig, “Laser Doppler Measurement of Retinal Blood Velocity: Validity of the Single Scattering Model,” Appl. Opt. 24, 605 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, “Laser Doppler Velocimetry Study of the Effect of Pure Oxygen Breathing on Retinal Blood Flow,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 24, 47 (1983). [PubMed]
  10. C. E. Riva, B. L. Petrig, J. E. Grunwald, “Near Infrared Retinal Laser Doppler Velocimetry,” Lasers Ophthalmol. 1, 211 (1987).
  11. C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, B. L. Petrig, “Autoregulation of Human Retinal Blood Flow: an Investigation with Laser Doppler Velocimetry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 1706 (1986). [PubMed]
  12. B. Petrig, E. B. Werner, C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, “Response of Macular Capillary Blood Flow to Changes in Intraocular Pressure as Measured by the Blue Field Simulation Technique,” in Proceedings, Sixth International Visual Field Symposium, A. Heijl, E. L. Greve, Eds. (Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1985), pp. 447–451. [CrossRef]

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