OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 27, Iss. 8 — Apr. 15, 1988
  • pp: 1414–1422

Fabrication, evaluation, and performance of machined metal grazing incidence telescopes

Stuart Bowyer and James Green  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 27, Issue 8, pp. 1414-1422 (1988)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1434 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Grazing incidence optics are a key element of x-ray and extreme ultraviolet astronomy and are becoming increasingly important in aspects of far-ultraviolet astronomy. Metal optics have figured prominently in this work, and machined metal optics offer distinct advantages in some applications. New methods of metrology have combined with innovations in fabrication to produce metal optics of second of arc quality. In this paper we review the fabrication, evaluation, and performance of machined grazing incidence metal optics produced, or in production, for astronomical telescopes.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: December 11, 1987
Published: April 15, 1988

Stuart Bowyer and James Green, "Fabrication, evaluation, and performance of machined metal grazing incidence telescopes," Appl. Opt. 27, 1414-1422 (1988)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. D. Finley, J. Green, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “The Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 91 (1986).
  2. P. Agrawal, G. Garmire, G. Riegler, I. Tuohy, “X-Ray Telescope for Sounding Rocket-Borne Observations,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 93, 113 (1976).
  3. S. Bowyer, J. Green, D. Finley, R. F. Malina, “Diamond Turned Grazing Incidence Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet: Ten Years of Fabrication and Performance Results,” in Proceedings, Grazing Incidence Optics Workshop, Annapolis, MD (Apr.1985).
  4. R. Willingale, S. R. Milward, M. R. Sims, “The Performance of the ROSAT WFC Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 233 (1986).
  5. C. Martin, Columbia U., Physics Dept.; private correspondence.
  6. W. Cash, “Stellar Extreme Ultraviolet Astronomy,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. California, Berkeley (1973).
  7. P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broadband X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 787 (1984).
  8. R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, D. T. Roethig, W. J. Brookover, “Lacquer Polishing of X-Ray Optics,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1563 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. A. Nousek, G. P. Garmire, R. J. Pipetti, D. N. Burrows, W. H.-M. Ku, K. S. K. Lum, “Diamond-Turned Lacquer-Coated Soft X-Ray Telescope Mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1430 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, W. J. Brookover, “Fabrication of Imaging X-Ray Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 138 (1986).
  11. D. Finley, U. California, Berkeley, Space Sciences Laboratory; private correspondence.
  12. E. L. Church, “Fractal Surface Finish,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1518 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Willingale, “ROSAT Wide Field Camera Mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1423 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. O. Rice, “Reflection of Electromagnetic Waves from Slightly Rough Surfaces,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 351, 4 (1951).
  15. P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).
  16. J. Green, D. Finley, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Surface Evaluation of the Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 238 (1986).
  17. C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1967 (1981). [CrossRef]
  18. J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, “Vector Scattering Theory,” Opt. Eng. 18, 116 (1979). [CrossRef]
  19. E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship Between Surface Scattering and Microtopographic Features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125 (1979). [CrossRef]
  20. D. S. Finley, P. Jelinsky, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Design of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Long-Wavelength Grazing Incidence Telescope Optics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1476 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. L. P. Van Speybroeck, “Grazing Incidence Optics for the U.S. High-Resolution X-Ray Astronomy Program,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1398 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. Slomba, R. Babish, P. Glenn, “Mirror Surface Metrology and Polishing for AXAF/TMA,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 40 (1985).
  23. B. Aschenbach, “Design, Construction, and Performance of the ROSAT High-Resolution X-Ray Mirror Assembly,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1404 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited