A rapid thermal annealing (RTA) system has been used to initiate indiffusion of Ti into LiNbO3 for fabrication of optical channel waveguides. Four separate processes are investigated, each with different RTA temperature vs time variations followed by furnace heating. The sample processed with a fast initial ramp of temperature vs time to 875°C yielded the lowest waveguide propagation loss of 1 dB/cm at a wavelength of 632.8 nm, compared with samples processed with other RTA variations and with a sample undergoing only furnace processing. Use of a dry O2 ambient during RTA resulted in a smoother waveguide surface with no outdiffusion, when compared with use of a wet O2 ambient.
© 1989 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: May 13, 1988
Published: January 1, 1989
Daryl C. Cromer, Gregory N. De Brabander, Joseph T. Boyd, Howard E. Jackson, and S. Sriram, "Use of a rapid thermal annealing system to initiate indiffusion for fabrication of Ti:LiNbO3 optical channel waveguides," Appl. Opt. 28, 33-36 (1989)