OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 28, Iss. 11 — Jun. 1, 1989
  • pp: 1984–1990

Distributed fiber optic sensing based on counterpropagating waves

Tomas Valis, Roderick D. Turner, and Raymond M. Measures  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 28, Issue 11, pp. 1984-1990 (1989)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (709 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The spatially and temporally resolved birefringence of a single-mode optical fiber can be ascertained using backward stimulated Raman scattering. The magnitude of the birefringence is determined from the optical power exchanged between two counterpropagating light pulses. The degree to which a signal pulse is amplified by a pump pulse is governed by their relative states of polarization when they overlap. A novel normalization procedure is proposed that eliminates many of the unknowns. An example of how this technique could be used to evaluate a distributed strain field is provided.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: July 25, 1988
Published: June 1, 1989

Tomas Valis, Roderick D. Turner, and Raymond M. Measures, "Distributed fiber optic sensing based on counterpropagating waves," Appl. Opt. 28, 1984-1990 (1989)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. J. Rogers, “Distributed Optical-Fibre Sensors,” J. Phys. D 19, 2237 (1986). [CrossRef]
  2. A. J. Rogers, “Polarization-Optical Time Domain Reflectometry: a Technique for the Measurement of Field Distributions,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1060–1074 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. M. Measures, “PROBE: a New Technique for Measuring the Density Profile of a Specific Constituent Using Counterpropagating Laser Pulses,” Appl. Opt. 16, 3016–3026 (1977). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. M. Measures, “PROBE—Profile Resolution Obtained By Excitation,” Appl. Spectrosc. 32, 381 (1978). [CrossRef]
  5. M. C. Farries, A. J. Rogers, “Distributed Sensing Using Stimulated Raman Interaction in a Monomode Optical Fibre,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 514, 121 (1984).
  6. F. A. Hopf, G. I. Stegeman, Applied Classical Electrodynamics Volume II: Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1986), p. 141.
  7. K. Mochizuki, “Optical Fiber Transmission Systems Using Stimulated Raman Scattering: Theory,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 688–694 (1985). [CrossRef]
  8. S. Chi, M.-S. Kao, “Bidirectional Optical Fiber Transmission Systems Using Raman Amplification,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 312–317 (1988). [CrossRef]
  9. For a purely classical description see R. H. Stolen, “Polarization Effects in Fiber Raman and Brillouin Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1157 (1979). [CrossRef]
  10. S. C. Rashleigh, “Origins and Control of Polarization Effects in Single-Mode Fibers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 312–331 (1983). [CrossRef]
  11. W. A. Gambling, “Novel Optical Fibres for Sensing Applications,” J. Phys. E 20, 1091 (1987). [CrossRef]
  12. R. G. Smith, “Optical Power Handling Capacity of Low Loss Optical Fibers as Determined by Stimulated Raman and Brillouin Scattering,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2489–2494 (1972). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. V. Tratnik, J. E. Sipe, “Nonlinear Polarization Dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 2965 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. E. Lines, “Raman-Gain Estimates for High-Gain Optical Fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4363 (1987). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited