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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 28, Iss. 11 — Jun. 1, 1989
  • pp: 2097–2103

Effects of restricting the detector field of view when using integrating spheres

Leonard M. Hanssen  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 28, Issue 11, pp. 2097-2103 (1989)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.28.002097


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Abstract

Integrating sphere theory is developed for restricted field of view (FOV) detectors using a simple series solution technique. The sphere throughput, sample reflectance, and sphere wall reflectance are calculated. The effects of the sample’s scattering characteristics on sphere measurements are determined. It is shown that although the generalized equations incorporating detector FOV dependence reduce to the hemispherical FOV equations in some cases, in general integrating sphere behavior is altered through restriction of the detector FOV.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: January 25, 1988
Published: June 1, 1989

Citation
Leonard M. Hanssen, "Effects of restricting the detector field of view when using integrating spheres," Appl. Opt. 28, 2097-2103 (1989)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-28-11-2097


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References

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  2. D. K. Edwards, J. T. Gier, K. E. Nelson, R. D. Roddick, “Integrating Sphere for Imperfectly Diffuse Samples,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1279–1288 (1961). [CrossRef]
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  12. K. A. Snail, K. F. Carr, L. M. Hanssen, “Integrating Sphere Measurements Using Restricted Field of View Detectors,” submitted to Applied Optics.
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  14. The equation within the text between Eqs. (4) and (5) of Ref. 5 assumes that the flat sample and/or reference conform to the sphere (i.e., are curved to match the sphere wall). This is in contrast to the more accurate approximation of Eq. (3.1) of Ref. 3.
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  18. Hemispherical total reflectance refers to the hemispherically integrated radiation reflected off a sample which is ratioed to the diffusely incident radiation from the same hemisphere. In general, this is not equal to the directional/hemispherical reflectance, which is the ratio of the hemispherically collected radiation off a sample to radiation incident from a specific direction (often normal). The directional/hemispherical reflectance is the quantity referred to by the ρ terms in this paper. See F. E. Nicodemus, “Reflectance Nomenclature and Directional Reflectance and Emissivity,” Appl. Opt. 9, 1474–1475 (1970); J. J. Hsia, J. C. Richmond, “Bidirectional Reflectometry. Part 1,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80, 189–205 (1976); R. Siegel, J. R. Howell, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1981), pp. 64+. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  20. D. G. Goebel, “Generalized Integrating Sphere Theory,” Appl. Opt. 6, 125–128 (1967). Note that his equations as shown are missing many parentheses and a / in the last equation. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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