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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 28, Iss. 12 — Jun. 15, 1989
  • pp: 2210–2215

Diffusion of light in turbid material

Akira Ishimaru  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 28, Issue 12, pp. 2210-2215 (1989)

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This paper discusses some of the present knowledge of the mathematical techniques used to describe light diffusion in turbid material such as tissues. Attention will be paid to the usefulness and limitations of various techniques. First, we review the transport theory, radiance, radiant energy fluence rate, phase functions, boundary conditions, and measurement techniques. We then discuss the first-order solution, multiple scattering, diffusion approximation, and their limitations. The plane wave, spherical wave, beam wave, and pulse wave excitations are discussed followed by a brief review of the surface scattering effects due to rough interfaces.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: January 12, 1989
Published: June 15, 1989

Akira Ishimaru, "Diffusion of light in turbid material," Appl. Opt. 28, 2210-2215 (1989)

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  1. A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978).
  2. J. A. Kong, Electromagnetic Wave Theory (Wiley, New York, 1986).
  3. L. Tsang, J. A. Kong, R. T. Shin, Theory of Microwave Remote Sensing (Wiley, New York, 1985).
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  6. A. Ishimaru, C. Yeh, “Matrix Representations of the Vector Radiative-Transfer Theory for Randomly Distributed Nonspherical Particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 359–364 (1984). [CrossRef]
  7. A. Ishimaru, Y. Kuga, R. L.-T. Cheung, K. Shimizu, “Scattering and Diffusion of a Beam Wave in Randomly Distributed Scatterers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 131–136 (1983). [CrossRef]
  8. A. Ishimaru, “Diffusion of a pulse in densely distributed scatterers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1045–1050 (1978). [CrossRef]
  9. K. Furutsu, “Diffusion Equation Derived from a Space-Time Transport Equation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 360–366 (1980). [CrossRef]
  10. K. Shimizu, A. Ishimaru, “Experimental Test of the Reduced Velocity of Light in a Diffuse Medium,” Opt. Lett 5, 205–207 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Kuga, A. Ishimaru, A. P. Bruckner, “Experiments on Picosecond Pulse Propagation in a Diffuse Medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1812–1815 (1983). [CrossRef]
  12. A. Ishimaru, L. Tsang, “Backscattering Enhancement of Random Discrete Scatterers of Moderate Sizes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 228 (1988). [CrossRef]
  13. P. E. Wolf, G. Maret, E. Akkermans, R. Maynard, “Optical Coherent Backscattering by Random Media,” J. Phys. France 49, 63 (1988). [CrossRef]
  14. J. A. DeSanto, G. S. Brown, “Analytical Techniques for Multiple Scattering from Rough Surfaces,” Prog. Opt. 23, 3–62 (1986).

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