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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 28, Iss. 18 — Sep. 15, 1989
  • pp: 3902–3907

Optical scattering from oxidized metals. 2: Model verification for oxidized copper

Mikael Bergkvist, Arne Roos, Carl G. Ribbing, Jean M. Bennett, and Lars Mattsson  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 28, Issue 18, pp. 3902-3907 (1989)

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A model for the calculation of diffuse reflectance spectra for oxidized metals is applied to thermally oxidized copper films and compared with experiments. The model calculations reproduce the spectral structure observed in the experiments. It is demonstrated that the air–oxide interface roughness dominates the scattering for wavelengths shorter than the absorption threshold of the oxide, and the oxide–metal interface roughness dominates for longer wavelengths. Using the model for fitting calculations the rms roughness values for the two interfaces are determined independently. The roughness values agree with the results from high accuracy stylus profiling of the oxide front surface as well as stylus profiling and total integrated scattering of He–Ne light from the bare metal surface, obtained after etching away the oxide. The good overall agreement between the calculated and experimental diffuse reflectance spectra, as well as the rms roughness values determined with different techniques, confirms the applicability of the model.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: September 19, 1988
Published: September 15, 1989

Mikael Bergkvist, Arne Roos, Carl G. Ribbing, Jean M. Bennett, and Lars Mattsson, "Optical scattering from oxidized metals. 2: Model verification for oxidized copper," Appl. Opt. 28, 3902-3907 (1989)

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  1. A. Roos, M. Bergkvist, C.-G. Ribbing, “Optical Scattering from Oxidized Metals. 1: Model Formulation and Properties,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1360–1364 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, London, 1963).
  3. A. Roos, M. Bergkvist, C.-G. Ribbing, J. M. Bennett, “Quantitative Interface Roughness Studies of Copper Oxide on Copper,” presented at ICTF-7, New Delhi, Dec. 1987;Thin Solid Films 164, 5–17 (1988).
  4. R. D. Pettit, J. M. Freese, “Wavelength Dependent Scattering Caused by Dust Accumulation on Solar Mirrors,” Sol. Energy Mat. 3, 1–20 (1980). [CrossRef]
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  6. A. Roos, M. Bergkvist, C.-G. Ribbing, “Observation of Diffuse Interference in Reflectance from Oxide-Coated Metals,” Thin Solid Films 125, 221–227 (1985). [CrossRef]
  7. A. Roos, C.-G. Ribbing, “Oxidation Induced Roughness as Observed by Diffuse Optical Reflectance,” Phys. Lett. A 108, 225–227 (1985). [CrossRef]
  8. A. Roos, M. Bergkvist, C.-G. Ribbing, “Determination of the SiO2/Si Interface Roughness by Diffuse Reflectance Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4314–4317 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. National Inst. Standards & Technology, Washington, D.C., Reference Materials, Ceramic Diffuse Reflectance Standards, Lg numbers 2019(a) and 2021.
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  11. Manufactured by Edge Technologies Indianapolis, IN.
  12. J. M. Bennett, Michelson Laboratory; unpublished data (1988).
  13. S. Tolansky, High Resolution Spectroscopy (Pitman Publishing Corp., New York, 1947), p. 86.
  14. A. E. Conrady, Applied Optics and Optical Design (Dover, New York, 1957), p. 133.
  15. J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, “Relation Between the Angular Dependence of Scattering and the Statistical Properties of Optical Surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 31–47 (1979). [CrossRef]
  16. G. A. Al-Jumaily, S. R. Wilson, K. C. Jungling, J. R. McNeil, J. M. Bennett, “Frequency Response Characteristics of a Mechanical Surface Profilometer,” Opt. Eng. 26, 953–958 (1987). [CrossRef]
  17. L. Mattsson, “Total Integrated Scatter Measurement System for Quality Assessment of Coatings on Optical Surfaces,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 652, 264–271 (1986).
  18. “Standard Test Method for Measuring the Effective Surface Roughness of Optical Components by Total Integrated Scattering,” ASTM F-1048-87, American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia, PA 19103.
  19. A. Duparre, E. Welsch, H. G. Walther, H. J. Kuhn, G. Schirmer, “Optical Losses of Sputtered Ta2O5 Films,” J. Phys. (Paris) 48, 1155–1159 (1987). [CrossRef]

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