OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 28, Iss. 6 — Mar. 15, 1989
  • pp: 1151–1157

Short wavelength sensitive cone acuity: individual differences and clinical use

William H. Swanson  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 28, Issue 6, pp. 1151-1157 (1989)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1014 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Acuity of the short wavelength sensitive (SWS) cone pathways was evaluated in 195 observers ages 5–72. A rapid staircase procedure gave comparable results to a longer frequency-of-seeing procedure. Large and reliable individual differences were found among normal observers. Interindividual variability could not be accounted for by differences in density of prereceptoral filters, differences in sensitivity of the SWS cones, or effects of the macular SWS cone-free region, but could be accounted for in part by differences in the accommodative state. Therefore it is important to control the accommodative state in younger observers. SWS cone acuity can be measured reliably and rapidly in a clinical environment and provides a complement to increment threshold measures of the SWS cone pathways.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: June 2, 1988
Published: March 15, 1989

William H. Swanson, "Short wavelength sensitive cone acuity: individual differences and clinical use," Appl. Opt. 28, 1151-1157 (1989)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, G. Verriest, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, Eds., Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects (Grune & Stratton, New York, 1979).
  2. M. Marre, “Clinical Examination of the Three Color Vision Mechanisms in Acquired Color Vision Defects,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol.11, 224 (1972)M. A. Sandberg, E. L. Berson, “Blue and Green Cone Mechanisms in Retinitis Pigmentosa,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 16, 149 (1977)R. S. L. Young, “Early-Stage Abnormality of Foveal Pi Mechanisms in a Patient with Retinitis Pigmentosa,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1021 (1982)A. J. Adams, B. Schefrin, K. Huie, “New Clinical Color Threshold Test for Eye Disease,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Optics 64, 29 (1987)G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, B. Brown, “Two-Color Increment Thresholds in Early Age-Related Maculopathy,” Clin. Vision Sci.00, 000 (198X), in press. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Nakai, T. Ohara, M. Yokoyama, “Visual Acuity of the Blue Cone System and Its Clinical Use,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 35, 1295 (1981).
  4. D. G. Green, “Visual Acuity in the Blue Cone Monochromat,” J. Physiol. 222, 419 (1972)D. H. Kelly, “Spatio-Temporal Frequency Characteristics of Color-Vision Mechanisms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 983 (1974)C. R. Cavonius, O. Estevez, “Contrast Sensitivity of Individual Colour Mechanisms of Human Vision,” J. Physiol. 248, 649 (1975)C. F. Stromeyer, K. Kranda, C. Sternheim, “Selective Chromatic Adaptation at Different Spatial Frequencies,” Vision Res. 18, 427 (1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. S. Stiles, “Increment Thresholds & the Mechanisms of Colour Vision,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 138 (1949)G. S. Brindley, “The Summation Areas of Human Colour-Receptive Mechanisms at Increment-Threshold,” J. Physiol. 124, 400 (1954)N.W. Daw, J. M. Enoch, “Contrast Sensitivity, Westheimer Function and Stiles-Crawford Effect in a Blue Cone Monochromat,” Vision Res. 13, 1669 (1973)R. T. Eskew, R. M. Boynton, “Effects of Field Area and Configuration on Chromatic and Border Discriminations,” Vision Res. 27, 1835 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. R. Wilson, R. Blake, J. Pokorny, “Limits of Binocular Fusion in the Short Wave Sensitive (‘Blue’) Cones,” Vision Res. 28, 555 (1988). Wilson et al. reported that this system yielded dominant wavelengths and colorimetric purities that were, respectively, 464 nm, 0.96 and 588 nm, 0.98 for the blue target and yellow adapting field. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1982), p. 102.
  8. R. F. Quick, “A Vector-Magnitude Model of Contrast Detection,” Kybernetik 16, 65 (1974). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Levitt, “Transformed Up-Down Methods in Psychoacoustics,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 467 (1970). [CrossRef]
  10. B. J. Fellows, “Chance Stimulus Sequences for Discrimination Tasks,” Psychol. Bull. 67, 87 (1967). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. A. Bone, J. M. B. Sparrock, “Comparison of Macular Pigment Densities in Human Eyes,” Vision Res. 11, 1057 (1971)J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, R. Kliegl, “Aging and Human Macular Pigment Density,” Vision Res. 27, 257 (1987)P. L. Pease, A. J. Adams, E. Nuccio, “Optical Density of Human Macular Pigment,” Vision Res. 27, 705 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Lateral chromatic aberration of the eye was not controlled. For these stimuli, if observers used slightly eccentric fixation lateral chromatic aberration would only cause a minor change in stimulus contrast. See L. N. Thibos, “Calculation of the Influence of Lateral Chromatic Aberration on Image Quality Across the Visual Field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1673 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. M. Wolfe, D. A. Owens, “Is Accommodation Colorblind? Focusing Chromatic Contours,” Perception 10, 53 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. F. M. de Monasterio, E. P. McCrane, J. K. Newlander, S. J. Schein, “Density Profile of Blue-Sensitive Cones Along the Horizontal Meridian of Macaque Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 26, 289 (1985).
  15. D. R. Williams, R. J. Collier, B. J. Thompson, “Spatial Resolution of the Short-Wavelength Mechanism,” in Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon, L. T. Sharp, Eds. (Academic, London, 1983).
  16. P. K. Ahnelt, H. Kolb, R. Pflug, “Identification of a Subtype of Cone Photoreceptor, Likely to be Blue Sensitive, in the Human Retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 255, 18 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. C. Hood, N. I. Benimoff, V. C. Greenstein, “The Response Range of the Blue-Cone Pathways: a Source of Vulnerability to Disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 864 (1984).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited