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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 29, Iss. 18 — Jun. 20, 1990
  • pp: 2798–2804

Full modeling of field-assisted ion exchange for graded index buried channel optical waveguides

Jacques Albert and John W. Y. Lit  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 29, Issue 18, pp. 2798-2804 (1990)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.29.002798


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Abstract

The numerical modeling of field-assisted ion exchange in glass through a finite aperture is carried out. The effects of unequal ion mobilities and thermal diffusion are included we believe for the first time in the 2-D case. This allows for the modeling of optical channel waveguides with graded index profiles. It is demonstrated that annealing of backdiffused channel guides is far superior to backdiffusion alone in improving their circular symmetry for better coupling to optical fibers.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: March 14, 1989
Published: June 20, 1990

Citation
Jacques Albert and John W. Y. Lit, "Full modeling of field-assisted ion exchange for graded index buried channel optical waveguides," Appl. Opt. 29, 2798-2804 (1990)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-29-18-2798


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References

  1. R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-Exchanged Glass Waveguides: A Review,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 984–1002 (1988). [CrossRef]
  2. H. J. Lilienhof, E. Voges, D. Ritter, B. Pantschew, “Field-Induced Index Profiles of Multimode Ion-Exchanged Strip Waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1877–1883 (1982). [CrossRef]
  3. A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, M. Leppihalme, “Control of Ion-Exchanged Waveguide Profiles with Ag Thin-Film Sources,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 759–763 (1987). [CrossRef]
  4. C. Nissim, A. Beguin, R. Jansen, P. Laborde, “Fabrication and Characterization of Buried Single-Mode Waveguides and Couplers made by Ion Exchange in Glass,” in Technical Digest, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), paper WM2.
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  8. M. Abou-El-Leil, A. R. Cooper, “Analysis of Field-Assisted Binary Ion-Exchange,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 62, 390–395 (1979). [CrossRef]
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  10. E. Voges, “Planar Tees and Star Couplers,” in Integrated Optics, S. Martellucci, A. N. Chester, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1983). Note that the expression for the electric field cited here is corrected from that of Ref. 2 with a square root on the right-hand side.
  11. H. Yoshida, T. Kataoka, “Migration of Two Ions During Electrolysis of Glass Waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1739–1743 (1985). [CrossRef]
  12. S. Honkanen, Nokia Research Center Espoo, Finland; private communication.
  13. R. H. Doremus, “Mixed-Alkali Effect and Interdiffusion of Na and K Ions in Glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 57, 478–480 (1974). [CrossRef]
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