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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 29, Iss. 21 — Jul. 20, 1990
  • pp: 3126–3129

Ion-exchanged optical waveguides for all-optical switching

Janet L. Jackel, E. M. Vogel, and J. S. Aitchison  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 29, Issue 21, pp. 3126-3129 (1990)

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Current interest in all-optical waveguide devices has created a need for suitable nonlinear materials and fabrication techniques. To meet this need, we have made optical waveguides using ion exchange in two glasses, which were designed both to have large optical nonlinearities and to be compatible with the ion-exchange processing. We find that the choice of alkali metal ion in the glass has a major effect on the exchange process and on the optical quality of the ensuing guides. Guides made in one of these glasses have been used for demonstrations of spatial soliton propagation, which can be used as the basis of an all-optical switch.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: October 12, 1989
Published: July 20, 1990

Janet L. Jackel, E. M. Vogel, and J. S. Aitchison, "Ion-exchanged optical waveguides for all-optical switching," Appl. Opt. 29, 3126-3129 (1990)

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  1. S. R. Friberg, P. W. Smith, “Nonlinear Optical Glasses for Ultrafast Optical Switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2089–2094 (1987). [CrossRef]
  2. V. Mizrahi, K. W. DeLong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, “Two-Photon Absorption as a Limitation to All-Optical Switching Demonstrated in a Lead Glass Fiber,” in Postdeadline Papers, Topical Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena: Physics and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989), paper 4.
  3. I. Thomazeau, J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, A. Migus, “Electronic Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities of Silicate Glasses,” Opt. Lett. 10, 223–225 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  5. E. M. Vogel, D. M. Krol, J. L. Jackel, J. S. Aitchison, “Structure and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Glasses for Photonic Switching,” MRS Symp. Proc. Opt. Mater. 152, 83–87 (1989). [CrossRef]
  6. T. Findakly, “Glass Waveguides by Ion-Exchange: A Review,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244–250 (1985); and R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-Exchanged Glass Waveguides: A Review,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-6, 984–1002 (1988) both provide a useful overview of this field. [CrossRef]
  7. J. M. White, P. F. Heidrich, “Optical Waveguide Refractive Index Profiles Determined from Measurement of Mode Indices: a Simple Analysis,” Appl. Opt. 15, 151–155 (1976). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. C. Jaussaud, G. H. Chartier, “A Quick Method for the Determination of Refractive Index Profiles for Diffused Optical Waveguides,” J. Phys. D 10, 645–654 (1977). [CrossRef]
  9. T. Izawa, H. Nakagome, “Optical Waveguide Formed by Electrically Induced Migration of Ions in Glass Plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 584–586 (1972). [CrossRef]
  10. L. Ross, H. J. Lilienhof, H. Holscher, H. F. Schlaak, A. Brandenburg, “Improved Substrate Glass for Planar Waveguides by Cs-Ion Exchange,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper ThBB.
  11. R. H. Doremus, “Exchange and Diffusion of Ions in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. 68, 2212–2218 (1964); F. Helfferich, M. S. Plesset, “Ion Exchange Kinetics: a Nonlinear Diffusion Problem,” J. Chem. Phys. 28, 418–425 (1958). [CrossRef]
  12. D. E. Day, “Mixed Alkali Glasses—Their Properties and Uses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 21, 343–372 (1976). [CrossRef]
  13. V. Neuman, O. Parriaux, L. M. Walpita, “Double-Alkali Effect: Influence on Index Profile of Ion-Exchanged Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 15, 704–706 (1979). [CrossRef]
  14. J. S. Aitchison et al., “Observation of Spatial Optical Solitons in a Nonlinear Glass Waveguide,” to be submitted to Opt. Lett.

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