OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 29, Iss. 28 — Oct. 1, 1990
  • pp: 4259–4267

Single photomask, multilevel kinoforms in quartz and photoresist: manufacture and evaluation

H. Andersson, Mats Ekberg, Sverker Hård, Stellan Jacobsson, Michael Larsson, and T. Nilsson  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 29, Issue 28, pp. 4259-4267 (1990)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.29.004259


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2026 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Kinoforms manufactured in photoresist by photolithographic techniques using a single, ten-level, grey scale photomask, exposed in a specially designed laser exposure system, are described. Kinoforms designed for uniform as well as for partial Gaussian beam illumination are discussed. The highest measured diffraction efficiency was 55%. Photoresist kinoforms were transferred into quartz substrates by reactive ion etching. The highest measured diffraction efficiency for the resulting all-quartz kinoforms was 53%.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: October 27, 1989
Published: October 1, 1990

Citation
H. Andersson, Mats Ekberg, Sverker Hård, Stellan Jacobsson, Michael Larsson, and T. Nilsson, "Single photomask, multilevel kinoforms in quartz and photoresist: manufacture and evaluation," Appl. Opt. 29, 4259-4267 (1990)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-29-28-4259


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, “The Kinoform: a New Wavefront Reconstruction Device,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969). [CrossRef]
  2. J. P. Riley, F. N. Birkett, “A Reflection Kinoform for Use with a CO2 Laser,” Opt. Acta 24, 999–1009 (1977). [CrossRef]
  3. V. P. Koronkevich et al., “Fabrication of Kinoform Optical Elements,” Optik 67, 257–266 (1984).
  4. I. A. Mikhaltsova, V. I. Navivaiko, I. S. Soldatenkov, “Kinoform Axicons,” Optik 67, 267–277 (1984).
  5. J. R. Leger, M. L. Scott, P. Bundman, M. P. Griswold, “Astigmatic Wavefront Correction of Gain-Guided Laser Diode Array Using Anamorphic Diffractive Microlenses,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 884, 82–89 (1988).
  6. G. J. Swanson, W. B. Veldkamp, “Diffractive Optical Elements for Use in Infrared Systems,” Opt. Eng. 28, 605–608 (1989). [CrossRef]
  7. K. M. Flood, J. M. Finlan, “Multiple Phase Level Computer-Generated Holograms Etched in Fused Silica,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1052, 91–96 (1989).
  8. S. Jacobsson, S. Hård, A. Bolle, “Partially Illuminated Kinoforms: a Computer Study,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2773–2781 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A Practical Algorithm for the Determination of Phase from Image and Diffraction Plane Pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).
  10. B. Golja, J. A. Barkanic, A. Hoff, “A Review of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Dry Etching in Microelectronics Processing,” Microelectron. J. 16, 5–21 (1985). [CrossRef]
  11. Perfect generation of a desired diffraction pattern (η1 = 1) generally requires both phase and amplitude modulation. This can, for example, be realized by sandwiching a kinoform and an amplitude transmission hologram. However, the drawback is that ~50% of the incident power is absorbed by the amplitude hologram, which reduces the overall efficiency.
  12. For better characterization of the kinoform quality their diffraction patterns have to be quantified using additional measures besides diffraction efficiency, such as the standard deviation or the cross correlation of the obtained patterns relative to the intended ones.8
  13. The spiral iteration procedure uses a partially illuminating Gaussian beam, which is allowed to move over the kinoform surface during the iteration process. The calculated kinoform phase is gradually built up by adding contributions from the kinoform areas traversed by the moving beam. The diffraction pattern quality of the resulting kinoform is insensitive to the location of the illuminating beam.8
  14. M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, B. Nilsson, “Multilevel Phase Holograms Manufactured by Electron Beam Lithography,” Opt. Lett. 15, 568–569 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited