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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 29, Iss. 28 — Oct. 1, 1990
  • pp: 4259–4267

Single photomask, multilevel kinoforms in quartz and photoresist: manufacture and evaluation

H. Andersson, Mats Ekberg, Sverker Hård, Stellan Jacobsson, Michael Larsson, and T. Nilsson  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 29, Issue 28, pp. 4259-4267 (1990)

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Kinoforms manufactured in photoresist by photolithographic techniques using a single, ten-level, grey scale photomask, exposed in a specially designed laser exposure system, are described. Kinoforms designed for uniform as well as for partial Gaussian beam illumination are discussed. The highest measured diffraction efficiency was 55%. Photoresist kinoforms were transferred into quartz substrates by reactive ion etching. The highest measured diffraction efficiency for the resulting all-quartz kinoforms was 53%.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: October 27, 1989
Published: October 1, 1990

H. Andersson, Mats Ekberg, Sverker Hård, Stellan Jacobsson, Michael Larsson, and T. Nilsson, "Single photomask, multilevel kinoforms in quartz and photoresist: manufacture and evaluation," Appl. Opt. 29, 4259-4267 (1990)

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  1. L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, “The Kinoform: a New Wavefront Reconstruction Device,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150–155 (1969). [CrossRef]
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  11. Perfect generation of a desired diffraction pattern (η1 = 1) generally requires both phase and amplitude modulation. This can, for example, be realized by sandwiching a kinoform and an amplitude transmission hologram. However, the drawback is that ~50% of the incident power is absorbed by the amplitude hologram, which reduces the overall efficiency.
  12. For better characterization of the kinoform quality their diffraction patterns have to be quantified using additional measures besides diffraction efficiency, such as the standard deviation or the cross correlation of the obtained patterns relative to the intended ones.8
  13. The spiral iteration procedure uses a partially illuminating Gaussian beam, which is allowed to move over the kinoform surface during the iteration process. The calculated kinoform phase is gradually built up by adding contributions from the kinoform areas traversed by the moving beam. The diffraction pattern quality of the resulting kinoform is insensitive to the location of the illuminating beam.8
  14. M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, B. Nilsson, “Multilevel Phase Holograms Manufactured by Electron Beam Lithography,” Opt. Lett. 15, 568–569 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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