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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 29, Iss. 34 — Dec. 1, 1990
  • pp: 5136–5144

Use of heterodyne detection to measure optical transmittance over a wide range

Alan L. Migdall, B. Roop, Y. C. Zheng, J. E. Hardis, and Gu Jun Xia  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 29, Issue 34, pp. 5136-5144 (1990)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.29.005136


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Abstract

We are developing a heterodyne detection technique to measure optical transmittance with high accuracy over an unprecedented dynamic range. We have measured filters spanning a wide range of transmittances (12 orders of magnitude) and have evaluated the absolute uncertainties and discuss the ultimate accuracies that may be achieved. Our setup uses a two-beam Mach-Zehnder interferometer with acoustooptic frequency shifting to produce a frequency difference between the two light beams. We determine the optical transmittance of a filter by inserting it into one of the interferometer arms and measuring the change in amplitude of the signal at the difference frequency on the interferometer output beam. This method allows direct comparisons between optical and rf attenuators, ultimately tying optical transmittance measurements to rf attenuation standards in an absolute way.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: March 19, 1990
Published: December 1, 1990

Citation
Alan L. Migdall, B. Roop, Y. C. Zheng, J. E. Hardis, and Gu Jun Xia, "Use of heterodyne detection to measure optical transmittance over a wide range," Appl. Opt. 29, 5136-5144 (1990)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-29-34-5136


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References

  1. J. J. Snyder, “Wide Dynamic Range Optical Power Measurement Using Coherent Heterodyne Radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4465–4469 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Our direct detection apparatus setup is similar, in principle, to the one used in this reference. A. R. Schaefer, K. L. Eckerle, “Spectrophotomeric Tests Using a Dye-Laser-Based Radiometric Characterization Facility,” Appl. Opt. 23, 250–256 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. Eppeldauer, “Measurement of Very Low Light Intensities by Photovoltaic Cells,” in Proceedings, Eleventh IMEKO Photon Detector Symposium (Weimar, G.D.R., 1984) Proc. 182.
  4. L. Z. Gacusan, S. L. Kwiatkowsli, B. J. Sullivan, J. J. Snyder, “Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems,” R. P. Breault, Ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.967, 178–182 (1989).
  5. R. W. Boyd, Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation (Wiley, New York, 1983), p. 195.
  6. R. H. Kingston, Detection of Optical Radiation (Springer, Berlin, 1978), p. 32.
  7. K. Tanaka, N. Ohta, “Effects of Tilt and Offset of Signal Field on Heterodyne Efficiency,” Appl. Opt. 26, 627–632 (1987), also O. E. DeLange, “Optical Heterodyne Detection,” IEEE Spectrum Vol 5 # 10 p. 77–85 (1968). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. EG&G, Salem, MA.
  9. Certain trade names and company products are mentioned in the text or identified in an illustration to adequately specify the experimental procedure and equipment used. In no case does such identification imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards & Technology, nor does it imply that the products are necessarily the best available for the purpose.
  10. Analog Modules, Inc., Longwood, FL.
  11. NIST Calibration Services Users Guide 1989 Edition. J. Simmons, Ed., (Nat. Inst. Stand. Technol. Special Publication 250, revised Jan.1989), p. 154.
  12. Lucas Weinschel, Gaithersburg, MD.
  13. Hewlett-Packard Co., Loveland, CO.
  14. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980), p. 329.

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