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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 29, Iss. 4 — Feb. 1, 1990
  • pp: 483–488

Design of a gradient refractive index phase zone plate for soft x-rays

Hisao Fujisaki and Nobuyuki Nakagiri  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 29, Issue 4, pp. 483-488 (1990)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.29.000483


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Abstract

A new type of zone plate has been designed for soft x-rays, based on radial modulation of the refractive indices of the material. It is made with two materials; the concentration of one material increases gradually and that of the other decreases with increasing radius in each pair of zones. When such a zone plate is made with titanium and chromium and their concentrations are optimized for use at the wavelength of 2.74 nm, its x-ray focusing efficiency would be 34%. This value is 3.4 and 1.4 times the efficiencies of the Fresnel zone plate and the π-radian phase shifting zone plate, respectively.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: May 2, 1989
Published: February 1, 1990

Citation
Hisao Fujisaki and Nobuyuki Nakagiri, "Design of a gradient refractive index phase zone plate for soft x-rays," Appl. Opt. 29, 483-488 (1990)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-29-4-483


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References

  1. G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, Eds., X-Ray Microscopy (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984).
  2. P. C. Cheng, G. J. Jan, Eds., X-Ray Microscopy. Instrumentation and Biological Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987).
  3. J. Kirz, “Phase Zone Plates for X Rays and the Extreme uv,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 301–309 (1974). [CrossRef]
  4. N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, M. Schattenburg, “X-ray Phase Lens Design and Fabrication,” J. Vac. Technol. B 1, 1285–1288 (1983). [CrossRef]
  5. H. Fujisaki, “Materials for Phase Zone Plate Fabrication for Use with Soft X-Rays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27, 1335–1337 (1988). [CrossRef]
  6. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), p. 380.
  7. B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-Energy X-RAY Interaction Coefficients: Photoabsorption, Scattering, and Reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982). [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Nagai et al., “Feasibility Study for the Observations of Biological Materials in VUV Wavelength Regions. Using Zone Plates Fabricated by Electron and Ion Beam Lithographies,” X-Ray Microscopy. Instrumentation and Biological Applications, P. C. Cheng, G. J. Jan, Eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), pp. 263–288.
  9. T. W. Barbee, “Sputtered Layered Synthetic Microstructures (LSM) Dispersion Elements,” AIP Conf. Proc. No. 75, 131–145 (1981). [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Suzuki, “Tungsten-Carbon X-ray Multilayered Mirror Prepared by Photo-Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 920–924 (1989). [CrossRef]
  11. K. Saitoh, K. Inagawa, K. Kohra, C. Hayashi, A. ida, N. Kato, “Fabrication and Characterization of Multilayer Zone Plate for Hard X-Rays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27, L2131–L2133 (1988). [CrossRef]

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