OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 30, Iss. 19 — Jul. 1, 1991
  • pp: 2685–2691

Efficient optical elements to generate intensity weighted spot arrays: design and fabrication

Mark P. Dames, Robert J. Dowling, Paul McKee, and David Wood  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 30, Issue 19, pp. 2685-2691 (1991)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1049 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We report on the design and fabrication of fully 2-D surface relief diffraction elements that can split a single collimated beam into many beams in an arbitrary intensity distribution. These splitters were designed by computer using simulated annealing, and made into phase gratings by electron-beam lithography followed by plasma etching into quartz glass. Both two and four phase level gratings have been fabricated, allowing a wide range of uniform and weighted spot patterns to be generated. These grating elements have a measured diffraction efficiency of over 74%, with the beam intensity ratios accurate to within 1% of their target values.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: October 22, 1990
Published: July 1, 1991

Mark P. Dames, Robert J. Dowling, Paul McKee, and David Wood, "Efficient optical elements to generate intensity weighted spot arrays: design and fabrication," Appl. Opt. 30, 2685-2691 (1991)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. F. B. M. Cormick, “Generation of Large Spot Arrays from a Single Laser Beam by Multiple Imaging with Binary Phase Gratings,” Opt. Eng. 28, 299–304 (1989).
  2. N. M. Barnes et al., “High Speed Opto-Electronic Neural Network,” Postdeadline Session International Conference on Optical Computing, (Kobe, Japan, 1990).
  3. N. M. Barnes et al., “High Speed Opto-Electronic Neural Network,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1110–1113 (1990). [CrossRef]
  4. D. Prongue, H. P. Herzig, “Design and Fabrication of HOE for Clock Distribution in Integrated Circuits,” IEE Conference on Holographic Systems, Components and Applications, (Bath, U.K., 1989).
  5. M. C. Hutley, “Optical Techniques for the Generation of Microlens Arrays,” J. Mod. Opt. 37, 253–265 (1990). [CrossRef]
  6. K. M. Flood, J. M. Finlan, “Collimation of Diode Laser Arrays Using Etched Cylindrical Computer Generated Holograms,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1052, 186–190 (1989).
  7. H. Dammann, E. Klotz, “Coherent Optical Generation and Inspection of Two-Dimensional Periodic Structures,” Opt. Acta 24, 505–515 (1977). [CrossRef]
  8. M. R. Taghizadeh, J. I. B. Wilson, J. Turunen, A. Vasera, J. Westerholm, “Optimization and Fabrication of Grating Beam-splitters in Silicon Nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1492–1494 (1989). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Jahns, M. M. Downs, M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, S. J. Walker, “Dammann Gratings for Laser Beam Shaping,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1267–1275 (1989).
  10. J. N. Mait, “Design of Dammann Gratings for Two-Dimensional, Nonseparable, Noncentrosymmetric Responses,” Opt. Lett. 14, 196–198 (1990). [CrossRef]
  11. H. Akahori, “Spectrum Leveling by an Iterative Algorithm with a Dummy Area for Synthesizing the Kinoform,” Appl. Opt. 25, 802–811 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. Wyrowski, O. Bryndahl, “Iterative Fourier-Transform Algorithm Applied to Computer Holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1058–1065 (1988). [CrossRef]
  13. F. Wyrowski, O. Bryndahl, “Digital Holograms for Optical Memories,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1052, 126–130 (1989).
  14. M. R. Feldman, C. C. Guest, “Iterative Encoding of High-Efficiency Holograms for Generation of Spot Arrays,” Opt. Lett. 14, 479–481 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, M. P. Vecchi, “Optimization by Simulated Annealing,” Science 220, 671–680 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. M. Arnold, “Electron Beam Fabrication of Computer Generated Holograms,” Opt. Eng. 24, 803–807 (1985).
  17. K. M. Flood, J. M. Finlan, “Multiple-Phase Level Computer Generated Holograms Etched in Fused Silica,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1052, 91–96 (1989).
  18. J. Jahns, N. Streibl, S. J. Walker, “Multiple Phase Structures for Array Generation,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1052, 198–203 (1989).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited