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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 31, Iss. 22 — Aug. 1, 1992
  • pp: 4389–4396

Effects of diffraction efficiency on the modulation transfer function of diffractive lenses

Dale A. Buralli and G. Michael Morris  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 31, Issue 22, pp. 4389-4396 (1992)

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Diffractive lenses differ from conventional optical elements in that they can produce more than one image because of the presence of more than one diffraction order. These spurious, defocused images serve to lower the contrast of the desired image. We show that a quantity that we define as the integrated efficiency serves as a useful figure of merit to describe diffractive lenses. The integrated efficiency is shown to be the limiting value for the optical transfer function; in most cases it serves as an overall scale factor for the transfer function. We discuss both monochromatic and polychromatic applications of the integrated efficiency and provide examples to demonstrate its utility.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: March 25, 1991
Published: August 1, 1992

Dale A. Buralli and G. Michael Morris, "Effects of diffraction efficiency on the modulation transfer function of diffractive lenses," Appl. Opt. 31, 4389-4396 (1992)

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  1. P. P. Clark, C. Londono, “Production of kinoforms by single point diamond machining,” Opt. News, 15, 39–40 (1989); J. A. Futhey, “Diffractive bifocal intraocular lens,” in Holographic Optics: Optically and Computer Generated, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1052, 142–149 (1989); G. M. Morris, D. A. Buralli, “Wide field diffractive lenses for imaging, scanning, and Fourier transformation,” Opt. News 15(12), 41–42 (1989). [CrossRef]
  2. L. d’Auria, J. P. Huignard, A. M. Roy, E. Spitz, “Photolithographic fabrication of thin film lenses,” Opt. Commun. 5, 232–235 (1972); G. J. Swanson, W. B. Veldkamp, “Diffractive optical elements for use in infrared systems,” Opt. Eng 28, 605–608 (1989). [CrossRef]
  3. V. P. Koronkevich, “Computer synthesis of diffraction optical elements,” Optical Processing and Computing, H. H. Arsenault, T. Szoplik, B. Macukow, eds. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1989), pp. 277–313.
  4. For example, see the proceedings of several recent conferences on holographic and diffractive optics: Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 883, 1052, 1136, 1211, and selected papers in Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1354.
  5. D. A. Buralli, G. M. Morris, J. R. Rogers, “Optical performance of holographic kinoforms,” Appl. Opt. 28, 976–983 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. There are many papers that describe results from the rigorous electromagnetic grating theory. See, for example, E. G. Loewen, M. Nevière, D. Maystre, “Grating efficiency theory as it applies to blazed and holographic gratings,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2711–2721 (1977); R. Petit, ed., Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Rosenhauer, K. Rosenbruch, “Flare and optical transfer function,” Appl. Opt. 7, 283–287 (1968). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. O. A. Barteneva, “Effect of scattered light on the photographic image quality,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 197–199 (1977).
  9. J. J. Jakubowski, “Methodology for quantifying flare in a microdensitometer,” Opt. Eng. 19, 122–131 (1980).
  10. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, San Francisco, Calif., 1968), pp. 90–96.
  11. W. B. Wetherell, “The calculation of image quality,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, R. R. Shannon, J. C. Wyant, eds. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1980), Vol. VIII, pp. 202–215.
  12. G. J. Swanson, “Binary optics technology: the theory and design of multi-level diffractive optical elements,” Tech. Rep. 854 (Lincoln Laboratory, MIT, Lexington, Mass., 1989); W. -H. Lee, “Computer-generated holograms: techniques and applications,” in Progress in Optics XVI, E. Wolf., ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978). [CrossRef]
  13. Similar transfer functions for zone plates have been published in M. J. Simpson, A. G. Michette, “Considerations of zone plate optics for soft x-ray microscopy,” Opt. Acta 31, 1417–1426 (1984) and in A. G. Michette, Optical Systems for Soft X-Rays (Plenum, New York, 1986), pp. 186–188. [CrossRef]
  14. J. A. Cox, T. Werner, J. Lee, S. Nelson, B. Fritz, J. Bergstrom, “Diffraction efficiency of binary optical elements,” in Computer and Optically Formed Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1211, 116–124 (1990).
  15. D. A. Buralli, G. M. Morris, “Design of two- and three-element diffractive Keplerian telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 31, 38–43 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Ref. 10, pp. 70–74.
  17. Ref. 11, pp. 225–226.
  18. See Eq. (11) of Ref. 5.
  19. J. P. Jennings, F. J. Busselle, S. G. Shaw, “Observed differences in MTF results between line-spread and interferometric measurements for IR lenses,” in Infrared Technology and Applications, L. R. Baker, A. Masson, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.590, 138–143 (1985).

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