OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 31, Iss. 24 — Aug. 20, 1992
  • pp: 4957–4961

Resonantly photo-pumped Li-like x-ray lasers

Joseph Nilsen  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 31, Issue 24, pp. 4957-4961 (1992)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (694 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We identify potential candidates for achieving x-ray lasing in Li-like ions by utilizing Ly-α or He-α radiation to photopump an electron resonantly from the n = 2 state of the Li-like ion to the n = 4 or 5 state with subsequent lasing between the n = 5 → n = 4, n = 5 → n = 3, or n = 4 → n = 3 states of the Li-like ion. To identify potential resonances we calculate all the n = 2 → n = 4 and 5 transitions in Li-like ions that look favorable to pump and identify the resonances that are possible with Ly-α or He-α radiation. Many laser candidates are identified with the baron-pumped Na scheme being modeled as it appears to be an extremely promising candidate that could be driven by pulsed power machines or optical lasers of modest energy. Since gain has already been observed in Li-like ions because of recombination one can also combine the advantages of resonant photopumping with recombination to produce an improved Li-like laser.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: September 9, 1991
Published: August 20, 1992

Joseph Nilsen, "Resonantly photo-pumped Li-like x-ray lasers," Appl. Opt. 31, 4957-4961 (1992)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. R. C. Elton, X-ray Lasers (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990), pp. 99–198.
  2. D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neonlike germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185–1188 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, P. L. Hagelstein, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, M. D. Rosen, J. H. Scofield, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification in nickel-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Let.. 59, 2157–2160 (1987). [CrossRef]
  6. B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, D. A. Whelan, “Soft x-ray amplification of 50.3 Å in nickellike ytterbium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1858–1863 (1988). [CrossRef]
  7. B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. Da Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, “Demonstration of x-ray amplifiers near the carbon K edge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420–423 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. Ya. Kononov, K. N. Koshelev, Yu. A. Levykin, Yu. V. Sidelnikov, S. S. Churilov, “Population inversion of Al xi in a laser plasma,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 308–311 (1976). [CrossRef]
  11. P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, H. Guennou, “Soft x-ray amplification by lithiumlike ions in recombining hot plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 563–573 (1987). [CrossRef]
  12. D. Kim, C. H. Skinner, A. Wouters, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, S. Suckewer, “Soft x-ray amplification in lithiumlike Al xi (154 Å) and Si xii (129 Å),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 115–125 (1989). [CrossRef]
  13. J. C. Moreno, H. R. Griem, S. Goldsmith, J. Knauer, “Measurements of gain and line broadening in lithiumlike aluminum,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 6033–6036 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, P. Jaegle, “Recombination scheme in lithium-like ions for X-UV amplification,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 239–246 (1990). [CrossRef]
  15. A. V. Vinogradov, I. I. Sobelman, E. A. Yukov, “Possibility of constructing a far-ultraviolet laser utilizing transitions in multiply charged ions in an inhomogeneous plasma,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 59–63 (1975). [CrossRef]
  16. B. A. Norton, N. J. Peacock, “Population inversion in laser-produced plasmas by pumping with opacity-broadening lines,” J. Phys. B 8, 989–996 (1975). [CrossRef]
  17. V. A. Bhagavatula, “Soft x-ray population inversion by resonant photoexcitation in multicomponent laser plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4535–4537 (1976). [CrossRef]
  18. W. E. Alley, G. Chapline, P. Kunasz, J. C. Weisheit, “Calculation of gain at x-ray wavelengths resulting from optical pumping of helium-like ions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 257–266 (1982). [CrossRef]
  19. A. V. Vinogradov, B. N. Chichkov, E. A. Yukov, “Resonant photoexcitation as a pumping mechanism for far ultraviolet lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 444–449 (1984). [CrossRef]
  20. R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, “Absolute line intensities for photon pumping of x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 33, 2817–2819 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. P. Apruzese, J. Davis, K. G. Whitney, “Plasma conditions required for attainment of maximum gain in resonantly photo-pumped aluminum xii and neon ix,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4020–4027 ((1982)). [CrossRef]
  22. J. P. Apruzese, J. Davis, “Kinetics of x-ray lasing by resonant photoexcitation: fundamentals of pumping power and gain for the Na x–Ne ix system,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 2976–2983 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. P. Apruzese, G. Mehlman, J. Davis, J. E. Rogerson, V. E. Scherrer, S. J. Stephanakis, P. F. Ottinger, F. C. Young, “Spectroscopic analysis of sodium-bearing Z-pinch plasmas for their x-ray laser pumping efficiency,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 4896–4899 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. F. C. Young, S. J. Stephanakis, V. E. Scherrer, B. L. Welch, G. Mehlman, P. G. Burkhalter, J. P. Apruzese, “Implosion of sodium-bearing capillary-discharge plasmas for x-ray laser experiments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1053–1055 (1987). [CrossRef]
  25. S. J. Stephanakis, J. P. Apruzese, P. G. Burkhalter, G. Cooperstein, J. Davis, D. D. Hinshelwood, G. Mehlman, D. Mosher, P. F. Ottinger, V. E. Scherrer, J. W. Thornhill, B. L. Welch, F. C. Young, “Development of a sodium-pump/neon-lasant photopumped soft x-ray laser,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 472–481 (1988). [CrossRef]
  26. P. Monier, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, “Demonstration of quasiresonant x-ray photoexcitation in a laser-created plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2508–2515 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. Nilsen, “A 33 angston laboratory x-ray laser,” Opt. Commun. 72, 371–376 (1989). [CrossRef]
  28. J. Nilsen, “Resonantly photo-pumped Ni-like Er x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. 40, 5440–5443 (1989). [CrossRef]
  29. B. N. Chichkov, E. E. Fill, “A neon-like x-ray laser photoresonant pumping scheme,” Opt. Commun. 74, 202–206 (1989). [CrossRef]
  30. J. Nilsen, “A Ne-like Cu laser resonantly photo-pumped by a He-like Mg line,” Opt. Commun. 78, 51–57 (1990). [CrossRef]
  31. J. Nilsen, “A vanadium-pumped titanium x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 15, 798–800 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. B. N. Chichkov, E. E. Fill, “Prospects for resonant photoexcitation as a pumping mechanism for x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 599–610 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. Y. T. Lee, W. M. Howard, J. K. Nash, “Soft x-ray lasing in Li-like iron by resonant photo-pumping,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 43, 335–345 (1990). [CrossRef]
  34. J. Nilsen, “Ni-like x-ray lasers resonantly photo-pumped by Ly–α radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 305–308 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. J. Nilsen, “Resonantly photo-pumped Ni-like Tl x-ray laser,” Phys. Scr. 43, 596–598 (1991). [CrossRef]
  36. J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain produced in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP, Bristol, UK, 1991), pp. 39–42.
  37. J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, “Analysis of the resonantly photo-pumped Na–Ne x-ray laser scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 4591–4598 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. J. Nilsen, “A Ne-like Fe laser resonantly photo-pumped by Ne x Ly-α radiation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 46, 547–556 (1991). [CrossRef]
  39. N. Qi, M. Krishnan, “Photopumping of a C iii ultraviolet laser by Mn vi line radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2051–2054 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. I. P. Grant, B. J. McKenzie, P. H. Norrington, D. F. Mayers, N. C. Pyper, “An atomic multiconfigurational Dirac–Fock package,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 21, 207–231 (1980). [CrossRef]
  42. J. H. Scofield, “Energy levels of hydrogen-, helium-, and neonlike ions,” in Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report PUB-490 Revised, D. Vaughan, ed. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif. 1, 1986), pp. 2-23–2-25.
  43. R. L. Kelly, “Atomic and ionic spectrum lines below 2000 angstoms: hydrogen through krypton,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data. 16, Suppl. 1, 1–1678 (1987).
  44. B. C. Fawcett, “Classifications of highly ionized emission lines due to transitions from singly and double excited levels in sodium, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine,” J. Phys. B 3, 1152–1163 (1970). [CrossRef]
  45. B. C. Fawcett, R. A. Hardcastle, G. Tondello, “New classifications of emission lines of highly ionized phosphorus and sulfur,” J. Phys. B 3, 564–571 (1970). [CrossRef]
  46. D. W. Phillion, C. J. Hailey, “Brightness and duration of x-ray line sources irradiated with intense 0.53 μm light at 60 and 120 ps pulse width,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 4886–4896 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. P. L. Hagelstein, R. K. Jung, “Relativistic distorted-wave calculations of electron collision cross sections and rate coefficients for Ne-like ions,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 37, 121–188 (1987). [CrossRef]
  48. J. Nilsen, “Radiative-hydro modeling and atomic data bases,” AIP Conf. Proc. 168, 51–58 (1988). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited