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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 31, Iss. 24 — Aug. 20, 1992
  • pp: 4962–4968

Photon trapping models for x-ray lasers

D. C. Eder, H. A. Scott, S. Maxon, and R. A. London  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 31, Issue 24, pp. 4962-4968 (1992)

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Optimum methods for calculating the effects of photon trapping are discussed. An efficient line-transfer algorithm that can calculate trapping when there are overlapping and interacting lines is described. Escape probability formulas are shown to be appropriate for calculating photon trapping for isolated lines and for the highest-energy line in a group of lines in many situations. Major computational savings are achieved by using cylindrical escape probabilities for recombination x-ray laser schemes. For collisional x-ray laser schemes it is shown that the calculation of line transfer in planar geometry is sufficiently fast that one only obtains substantial savings by exploiting the coarser spatial zoning that is possible when using escape probabilities in regions of steep velocity gradients. The use of escape probabilities is shown to be particularly well suited for single-zone parameter studies.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: May 7, 1991
Published: August 20, 1992

D. C. Eder, H. A. Scott, S. Maxon, and R. A. London, "Photon trapping models for x-ray lasers," Appl. Opt. 31, 4962-4968 (1992)

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  1. See, for example, D. C. Eder, “Hydrogenlike magnesium x-ray laser design,” Phys. Fluids B 2, 3086–3092 (1990); G. J. Pert, S. J. Rose, “Detailed simulation of recombination XUV laser experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 307–311 (1990); R. A. London, M. D. Rosen, M. S. Maxon, D. C. Eder, P. L. Hagelstein, “Theory and design of soft x-ray laser experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” J. Phys. B 22, 3363–3376 (1989); R. C. Elton, X-Ray Lasers (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990). [CrossRef]
  2. D. C. Eder, H. A. Scott, “The calculation of line transfer in expanding media,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 45, 189–204 (1991). [CrossRef]
  3. G. B. Rybicki, “Escape probability methods,” in Methods in Radiative Transfer, W. Kalkofen, ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1984), p. 21.
  4. D. G. Hummer, G. B. Rybicki, “A unified treatment of escape probabilities in static and moving media. I. Plane geometry,” Astrophys. J. 254, 767–779 (1982). [CrossRef]
  5. A. I. Shestakov, D. C. Eder, “Escape probabilities in a cylindrically expanding medium,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 42, 483–498 (1989). [CrossRef]
  6. Y. T. Lee, R. A. London, G. B. Zimmerman, P. L. Hagelstein, “Application of escape probability to line transfer in laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Fluids B 2, 2731–2740 (1990). [CrossRef]
  7. B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. Da Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, “Demonstration of x-ray amplifiers near the carbon K edge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420–423 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Maxon, S. Dalhed, P. L. Hagelstein, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, M. D. Rosen, G. Charatis, G. Busch, “Calculation for Ni-like soft x-ray lasers: optimization for W (43.1 Å),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 236–239 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Mihalas, Stellar Atmospheres (Freeman, San Franciso, Calif., 1978).
  10. D. Mostacci, L. M. Montierth, J. Dinguirard, R. L. Morse, “X-ray line emission from laser-produced spherical plasma flows,” Phys. Fluids B 1, 2106–2120 (1989). [CrossRef]
  11. J. P. Apruzese, “An analytic Voigt profile escape probability approximation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 34, 447–452 (1985). [CrossRef]
  12. R. A. London, M. D. Rosen, J. E. Trebes, “Wavelength choice for soft x-ray laser holography of biological samples,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3397–3404 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Zigler, H. Zmora, N. Spector, M. Klapisch, J. L. Schwob, A. Bar-Shalom, “Identification of the spectra of HfXLV, TaXLVI, WXLVII, and ReXLVIII isoelectronic to NiI in laser-produced plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 129–132 (1980). [CrossRef]

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