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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 31, Iss. 24 — Aug. 20, 1992
  • pp: 5096–5098

Proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides: relevance of atmospheric environment during annealing

A. Loni and R. M. De La Rue  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 31, Issue 24, pp. 5096-5098 (1992)

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The relevance of the type of atmosphere used during the annealing of proton-exchanged LiNbO3 planar waveguides is discussed. The experimental evidence, based on a comparison of the refractive-index profiles of waveguides annealed under wet O2, dry O2, or ambient atmospheres, with various gas flow rates, suggests that the atmosphere type does not influence the properties of the resulting waveguide.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: September 13, 1991
Published: August 20, 1992

A. Loni and R. M. De La Rue, "Proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides: relevance of atmospheric environment during annealing," Appl. Opt. 31, 5096-5098 (1992)

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  1. A. Loni, “Proton-exchanged LiNbO3 come of age,” waveguides Laser Focus World 27, 183–188 (1991).
  2. A. Loni, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, “Very low loss proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides with a substantially restored electro-optic effect,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper MD3.
  3. M. Rottschalk, A. Rasch, W. Karthe, “Electro-optic behavior of proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Opt. Commun. 9, 19–23 (1988).
  4. P. G. Suchoski, M. M. Abou el Leil, T. K. Findakly, F. J. Leonberger, “Stable low-loss proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguide devices with no electro-optic degradation,” Opt. Lett. 13, 1050–1052 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. M. Howerton, W. K. Burns, P. R. Skeath, A. S. Greenblatt, “Dependence of refractive index on hydrogen concentration in proton exchanged LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 593–601 (1991). [CrossRef]
  6. J. L. Jackel, “Suppression of outdiffusion in titanium diffused LiNbO3: a review,” J. Opt. Commun. 3, 82–85 (1982).
  7. A. Loni, G. Hay, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, “Proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides: the effects of post-exchange annealing and buffered melts as determined by infrared spectroscopy, optical waveguide measurements, and hydrogen isotopic exchange reactions,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 911–919 (1989). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Finak, H. Jerominek, Z. Opilski, K. Wotjala, “Planar diffusion glass waveguides obtained by immersing in molten KNO3,” Opt. Acta 7, 11–17 (1982).

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