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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 31, Iss. 36 — Dec. 20, 1992
  • pp: 7650–7659

Point-spread function associated with underwater imaging through a wavy air–water interface: theory and laboratory tank experiment

William C. Brown and Arun K. Majumdar  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 31, Issue 36, pp. 7650-7659 (1992)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.31.007650


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Abstract

The point-spread function needed for imaging underwater objects is theoretically derived and compared with experimental results. The theoretical development is based on the emergent-ray model, in which the Gram–Charlier series for the non-Gaussian probability-density function for emergent angles through a wavy water surface was assumed. To arrive at the point-spread model, we used a finite-element methodology with emergent-ray angular probability distributions as fundamental building functions. The model is in good agreement with the experiment for downwind conditions. A slight deviation between theory and experiment was observed for the crosswind case; this deviation may be caused by the possible interaction of standing waves with the original air-ruffled capillary waves that were not taken into account in the model.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: May 28, 1991
Published: December 20, 1992

Citation
William C. Brown and Arun K. Majumdar, "Point-spread function associated with underwater imaging through a wavy air–water interface: theory and laboratory tank experiment," Appl. Opt. 31, 7650-7659 (1992)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-31-36-7650

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