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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 32, Iss. 24 — Aug. 20, 1993
  • pp: 4590–4597

Two-dimensional scanning laser slope gauge: measurements of ocean-ripple structures

Qingxiong Li, Meng Zhao, Shih Tang, Shicai Sun, and Jin Wu  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 32, Issue 24, pp. 4590-4597 (1993)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.32.004590


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Abstract

A compact, two-dimensional scanning laser slope gauge has been developed for measuring ocean ripples, leading to the determination of their directional slope spectrum in the wavelength range of 4.5–81 mm. A telecentric scanning mechanism is used to enhance the dynamic range of slope measurements and to eliminate constraints caused by water-surface undulations associated with long waves. Successful laboratory tests and field trials have been performed; sample results are provided.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: January 30, 1992
Published: August 20, 1993

Citation
Qingxiong Li, Meng Zhao, Shih Tang, Shicai Sun, and Jin Wu, "Two-dimensional scanning laser slope gauge: measurements of ocean-ripple structures," Appl. Opt. 32, 4590-4597 (1993)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-32-24-4590


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References

  1. Jin Wu, “Sea-surface slope and equilibrium wind-wave spectra,” Phys. Fluids 15, 741–747 (1972). [CrossRef]
  2. Jin Wu, “Roughness elements of the sea surface—their spectral composition,” Tellus Ser. A 38, 178–188 (1986). [CrossRef]
  3. R. K. Moore, “Radar sensing of the ocean,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. OE-10, 84–113 (1985). [CrossRef]
  4. C. S. Cox, “Measurements of slopes of high-frequency wind waves,” J. Mar. Res. 16, 199–225 (1958).
  5. Jin Wu, “Slope and curvature distributions of wind-disturbed water surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 852–858 (1971). [CrossRef]
  6. Jin Wu, “Directional slope and curvature distributions of wind waves,” J. Fluid. Mech. 79, 463–480 (1977). [CrossRef]
  7. S. R. Long, N. E. Huang, “On the variation and growth of wave-slope spectra in the capillary-gravity range with increasing wind,” J. Fluid Mech. 77, 209–228 (1976). [CrossRef]
  8. C. S. Cox, W. H. Munk, “Slopes of the sea surface deduced from photographs of sun glitter,” Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. 6, 9 (1956).
  9. S. Tang, O. H. Shemdin, “Measurement of high-frequency wave using a wave follower,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 9832–9840 (1983). [CrossRef]
  10. S. P. Haimbach, Jin Wu, “Field trials of an optical scanner for studying sea-surface fine structure,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. OE-10, 451–453 (1985). [CrossRef]
  11. O. H. Shemdin, H. M. Tran, S. C. Wu, “Directional measurement of short ocean waves with stereophotography,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 13,891–13,901 (1988). [CrossRef]
  12. W. C. Keller, B. L. Gotwols, “Two-dimensional optical measurement of wave slope,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3476–3478 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Jähne, S. Waas, “Optical measuring technique for small scale water surface waves,” in Advanced Optical Instrumentation for Remote Sensing of the Earth's Surface From Space, G. Duchossois, F. L. Herr, K. J. Zander, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng., 1129, 122–128 (1989).
  14. J. Barter, K. Beach, D. Kwoh, M. Luding, H. Rungaldier, J. Schatzman, I. Stonich, R. Wagner, A. Williams, “Surface truth measurement system,” Rep. 53563–6005 (TRW, Redono Beach, Calif., 1990).
  15. Melles Griot Inc., Optics Guide 5, (Irvine, California, 1990). p. 21–7.
  16. Operating Instruction Manual (United Detector Technology, Orlando, Fla., 1984).

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