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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 32, Iss. 28 — Oct. 1, 1993
  • pp: 5481–5491

From light scattering to the microstructure of thin-film multilayers

C. Amra  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 32, Issue 28, pp. 5481-5491 (1993)

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It is shown how light scattering provides a powerful tool for thin-film characterization. The introduction of a roughness isotropy degree permits the extraction of structural parameters of the stacks. Replication functions and residual roughnesses are given for TiO2, SiO2, and Ta2O5 materials produced by ion-assisted deposition and ion plating. Additional confirmation is given by measurements of scattering versus wavelength. The sensitivity of design to material and substrate effects is studied. At low-loss levels, surface and bulk phenomena are discussed together. Microstructure is characterized in the frequency bandwidth given by experiment.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: November 16, 1992
Published: October 1, 1993

C. Amra, "From light scattering to the microstructure of thin-film multilayers," Appl. Opt. 32, 5481-5491 (1993)

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  1. P. Giacomo, “Les couches réfléchissantes multidiélectriques appliquées à l'interféromètre de Fabry–Perot. Etude théorique et expérimental des couches réelles,” Rev. Opt. 35, 317–354, 442–467 (1956).
  2. J. M. Eastman, “Surface scattering in optical interference coatings,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, 1974).
  3. J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989).
  4. J. M. Elson, J. P. Rahn, J. M. Bennett, “Relationship of the total integrated scattering from multilayer-coated optics to angle of incidence, polarization, correlation-length, and roughness cross-correlation properties,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3207–3219 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. M. Elson, J. P. Rahn, J. M. Bennett, “Light scattering from multilayer optics: comparison of theory and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 19, 669–679 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Amra, J. H. Apfel, E. Pelletier, “Role of interface correlation in light scattering by a multilayer,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3134–3151 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Amra, “From light scattering to the microstructure of thin film multilayers,” in Surface Roughness and Scattering, Vol. 14 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series, andOptical Interference Coatings, Vol. 15 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992).
  8. C. Amra, P. Bousquet, “Scattering from surfaces and multilayer coatings: recent advances for a better investigation of experiment,” in Surface Measurement and Characterization, J. M. Bennett, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1009, 82–97 (1988).
  9. S. Kassam, A. Duparré, K. Hehl, P. Bussemer, J. Neubert, “Light scattering from the volume of optical thin films: theory and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1304–1313 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. M. Elson, “Angle resolved light scattering from composite optical surfaces,” in Periodic Structures, Gratings, Moire Patterns, and Diffraction Phenomena I, C. H. Chi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.240, 296–306 (1980).
  11. P. Bousquet, F. Flory, P. Roche, “Scattering from multilayer thin films: theory and experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 1115–1123 (1981). [CrossRef]
  12. J. M. Elson, “Theory of light scattering from a rough surface with an inhomogeneous dielectric permittivity,” Phys. Rev. B 30, 5460–5480 (1984). [CrossRef]
  13. P. Bussemer, K. Hehl, S. Kassam, “Theory of light scattering from rough surfaces and interfaces and from volume inhomogeneities in an optical layer stack,” Waves Random Media 1, 207–221 (1991). [CrossRef]
  14. C. Amra, “First-order vector theory of bulk scattering in optical multilayers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 365–374 (1993). [CrossRef]
  15. C. Amra, C. Grèzes-Besset, L. Bruel, “Comparison of surface and bulk scattering in optical coatings,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5492–5503 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. Roche, P. Bousquet, F. Flory, J. Garcin, E. Pelletier, G. Albrand, “Determination of interface roughness cross-correlation properties of an optical coating from measurements of the angular scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1028–1031 (1984). [CrossRef]
  17. C. Amra, “Minimizing scattering in multilayers: technique for searching optimal realization conditions,” in Optical Technologies for Space Communication Systems, K. B. Bhasin, G. A. Koepf, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.756, 265–271 (1987).
  18. C. Amra, P. Roche, E. Pelletier, “Interface roughness cross-correlation laws deduced from scattering diagram measurements on optical multilayers: effect of the material grain size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1087–1093 (1987). [CrossRef]
  19. C. Amra, D. Torricini, Y. Boucher, L. Bruel, E. Pelletier, “Scattering from optical surfaces and coatings: an easy investigation of microroughness,” in Optical Thin Films and Applications, R. Herrmann, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1270, 72–81 (1990).
  20. C. Amra, “Calculs et mesures de diffusion appliqués à l'étude de la rugosité dans les traitements optiques multicouches,” J. Opt. (Paris) 21, 83–98 (1990). [CrossRef]
  21. C. Amra, “Scattering characterization of materials in thin film form,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1438, 309–323 (1990).
  22. P. Croce, L. Prod'homme, “Ecarts observés dans l'interprétation des indicatrices de diffusion optique par des théories vectorielles simples,” J. Opt. (Paris) 16, 143–151 (1985). [CrossRef]
  23. P. Roche, E. Pelletier, “Characterization of optical surfaces by measurement of scattering distribution,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3561–3566 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. C. Amra, “Light scattering from multilayer optics. Part A: Investigation tools. Part B: Application to experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).
  25. R. D. Jacobson, S. R. Wilson, G. A. Al-Jumaily, J. R. McNeil, J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, “Microstructure characterization by angle-resolved scatter and comparison to measurements made by other techniques,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1426–1435 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. E. L. Church, “Comments on the correlation length,” in Surface Characterization and Testing, K. Creath, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.680, 102–111 (1986).
  27. C. Amra, G. Albrand, P. Roche, “Theory and application of antiscattering single layers: antiscattering antireflection coatings,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2695–2702 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. E. L. Church, “The optical estimator of finish parameters,” in Optical Scatter: Applications, Measurement, and Theory, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1530, 71–85 (1991).
  29. C. Amra, D. Torricini, G. Albrand, P. Roche, “Multiwavelength (0.45–10.6 μm) angle-resolved scatterometer or how to extend the optical window,” submitted to Appl. Opt. [PubMed]
  30. C. Amra, L. Bruel, “Comparison of different techniques to characterize surface roughness,” in Surface Roughness and Scattering, Vol. 14 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992).
  31. Ph. Dumas, B. Bouffakhreddine, C. Amra, O. Vatel, E. André, R. Galindo, F. Salvan, “Quantitative microroughness analysis down to the nanometer scale,” Europhys. Lett, (to be published).

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