OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 32, Iss. 34 — Dec. 1, 1993
  • pp: 6952–6960

Multilayer mirror technology for soft-x-ray projection lithography

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, and S. P. Vernon  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 32, Issue 34, pp. 6952-6960 (1993)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.32.006952


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1337 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Recent advances in multilayer mirror technology meet many of the stringent demands of soft-x-ray projection lithography (SXPL). The maximum normal-incidence reflectivity achieved to date is 66% for Mo/Si multilayers at a soft-x-ray wavelength of 13.4 nm, which is sufficient to satisfy the x-ray throughput requirements of SXPL. These high-performance coatings can be deposited on figured optics with layer thickness control of ~ 0.5%. Uniform multilayer coatings are required for SXPL imaging optics, for which maintaining the surface figure is critical to achieving diffraction-limited performance. In contrast the coatings on the condenser optics will be graded to accommodate a large range of angles of incidence. Graded multilayer coatings can also be used to modify the figure of optical substrates without increasing the surface roughness. This offers a potential method for precise fabrication of aspheric imaging optics.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: September 18, 1992
Published: December 1, 1993

Citation
D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, and S. P. Vernon, "Multilayer mirror technology for soft-x-ray projection lithography," Appl. Opt. 32, 6952-6960 (1993)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-32-34-6952


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. E. Spiller, “Multilayer optics for x-rays,” in Physics, Fabrication and Applications of Multilayered Structures, P. Dhez, C. Weisbuch, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1987), pp. 271–309.
  2. E. Spiller, L. Golub, “Fabrication and testing of large area multilayer coated x-ray optics,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2969–2974 (1989); J. H. Underwood, T. W. Barbee, “Soft x-ray imaging with a normal incidence mirror,” Nature (London) 294, 429–431 (1981); M. Arbaoui, R. Barchewitz, C. Sella, K. B. Youn, “Absolute reflectivity measurements at 44.79 Å of sputter deposited multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 29, 477–482 (1990); T. D. Nguyen, R. Gronscky, J. B. Kortright, “Microstructure and stability comparison of nanometer period W/C, WC/C, and Ru/C multilayer structures,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 187, 95–104 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Normal incidence x-ray mirror for 7 nm,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1283–1285 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo–Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991). [CrossRef]
  5. N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “Soft-x-ray projection lithography system design,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, Vol. 12 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 5–10.
  6. G. E. Sommargren, L. G. Seppala, “Condenser optics, partial coherence and imaging for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6938–6944 (1993); N. M. Ceglio, “Design considerations for a front end illumination system for soft x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7050–7052 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Kinoshita, K. Kurihara, Y. Ishii, Y. Torii, “Soft x-ray reduction lithography using multilayer mirrors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 7, 1648–1651 (1989). [CrossRef]
  8. J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Gregus, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, “Reduction imaging at 14 nm using multilayer-coated optics: printing of features smaller than 0.1 μm,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 8, 1509–1513 (1990); A. A. MacDowell, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, J. Z. Pastalan, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, O. R. Wood, R. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, “Reduction imaging with soft x-rays for projection lithography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 737–740 (1992). [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Cheng, D. J. Smith, M. B. Stearns, D. G. Stearns, “Imaging x-ray multilayer structures using cross-sectional high resolution electron microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 5165–5171 (1992). [CrossRef]
  10. M. B. Stearns, C.-H. Chang, D. G. Stearns, “Optimization of growth conditions of vapor deposited Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 187–195 (1992); W. L. Morgan, D. B. Boercker, “Simulating growth of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1176–1178 (1991); J. M. Slaughter, A. Shapiro, P. A. Kearney, C. M. Falco, “Growth of molybdenum on silicon: structure and interface formation,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 3854–3863 (1991). [CrossRef]
  11. S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, “Structural modification of Mo/Si x-ray multilayer mirrors: ion-assisted sputter deposition,” 32, 6969–6974 (1993).
  12. M. Krumrey, M. Kuhne, P. Muller, F. Scholze, “Precision soft x-ray reflectometry of curved multilayer optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 136–143 (1991).
  13. D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, “Soft x-ray reflectometry of multilayer coatings using a laser-plasma source,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 144–158 (1991).
  14. S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, “Chirped multilayer coatings for increased x-ray throughput,” Opt. Lett. 18, 672–674 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “High performance multilayer mirrors for soft x-ray projection lithography,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 2–13 (1991).
  16. J. M. Eastman, “Scattering by all-dielectric multilayer bandpass filters and mirrors for lasers,” in Physics of Thin Films, Advances in Research and Development, G. Hass, M. H. Francombe, eds. (Academic, New York, 1978), Vol. 10, pp. 167–226; B. G. Peterson, L. V. Knight, H. K. Pew, “Image quality of figured multilayered optics,” in Applications of Thin-Film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-Ray Optics, G. F. Marshall, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.563, 328–339 (1985).
  17. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (to be published).
  18. R. S. Rosen, D. G. Stearns, M. A. Viliardos, M. E. Kassner, S. P. Vernon, Y. Chang, “Silicide layer growth rates in Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6975–6980 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “High-performance multilayer x-ray optics,” in Short-Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, Vol. 11 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 152–159.
  20. J. B. Kortright, R. N. Watts, “Multilayer uniformity and performance of soft-x-ray imaging optics,” in Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography, Vol. 12 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp.92–96.
  21. R. R. Kola, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, B. E. Weir, R. Hull, G. K. Celler, C. A. Volkert, “Stress relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3120–3122 (1992). [CrossRef]
  22. G. G. Stoney, “The tension of metallic films deposited by electrolysis,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 82, 172–175 (1909). [CrossRef]
  23. R. E. Bolz, G. L. Tuve, eds., CRC Handbook of Tables for Applied Engineering Science (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1983), p. 163.
  24. M. Kardar, G. Parisi, Y.-C. Zhang, “Dynamic scaling of growing interfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 889–892 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D. E. Savage, J. Kleiner, N. Schimke, Y.-H. Phang, T. Jankowski, J. Jacobs, R. Kariotis, M. G. Lagally, “Determination of roughness correlations in multilayer films for x-ray mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1411–1424 (1991); D. E. Savage, N. Schimke, Y.-H. Phang, M. G. Lagally, “Interfacial roughness correlation in multilayer films: influence of total film and individual-layer thicknesses,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3283–3293 (1992). [CrossRef]
  26. S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, N. M. Ceglio, D. P. Gaines, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, “Multilayer coatings of figured optics,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1547, 39–46 (1991).
  27. J. A. Thornton, J. Tabock, D. W. Hoffman, “Internal stresses in metallic films deposited by cylindrical magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 111–119 (1985).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited