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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 32, Iss. 36 — Dec. 20, 1993
  • pp: 7505–7511

Sensitivity of radiative transfer to small-angle scattering in the ocean: Quantitative assessment

Howard R. Gordon  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 32, Issue 36, pp. 7505-7511 (1993)

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It is shown that measurements of the absorption coefficient and the volume-scattering function for scattering angles ≳ 15° of ocean water are sufficient for predicting the transport of irradiance in the ocean. Thus, difficult-to-measure small-angle scattering is not necessary in many applications. Furthermore, the irrelevance of small-angle scattering suggests the irrelevance of the scattering coefficient and of the routinely measured beam-attenuation coefficient in many radiative-transfer problems. Finally, these observations provide a method for determining the adequacy of instruments in which small sampling volumes (~ few cm3) are analyzed when predicting irradiance attenuation and diffuse reflection for large volumes (~ 10–104 m3).

© 1993 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: February 1, 1993
Published: December 20, 1993

Howard R. Gordon, "Sensitivity of radiative transfer to small-angle scattering in the ocean: Quantitative assessment," Appl. Opt. 32, 7505-7511 (1993)

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  1. H. R. Gordon, “Absorption and scattering estimates from irradiance measurements: Monte Carlo simulations,” Limnol. and Oceanogr. 36, 769–777 (1991). [CrossRef]
  2. H. R. Gordon, “Dependence of the diffuse reflectance of natural waters on the sun angle,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1484–1489 (1989). [CrossRef]
  3. H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert–Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water?” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989). [CrossRef]
  4. R. W. Preisendorfer, “Application of radiative transfer theory to light measurements in the sea,” Union Geod. Geophys. Int. 10, 11–30 (1961).
  5. T. J. Petzold, Volume Scattering Functions for Selected Natural Waters (Visibility Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1972).
  6. H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer, New York, 1983).
  7. A. Morel, B. Gentilli, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on sun angle as influenced by the molecular-scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Ge, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, “Simulations of inelastic scattering contributions to the irradiance fields in the ocean: variation in Fraunhofer line depths,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4028–4036 (1993). [PubMed]
  9. S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1992).
  10. N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics (Elsevier, New York, 1976).
  11. H. R. Gordon, “Simple calculation of the diffuse reflectance of the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2803–2804 (1973). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. M. DiToro, “Optics of turbid estuarine waters: approximations and applications,” Water Res. 12, 1059–1068 (1978). [CrossRef]
  13. K. S. Shifrin, Physical Optics of Ocean Water (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1988).
  14. J. R. V. Zaneveld, R. Bartz, J. C. Kitchen, “A reflective-tube absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed. Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 124–136 (1990).

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