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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 32, Iss. 7 — Mar. 1, 1993
  • pp: 1055–1059

Absolute flatness testing by an extended rotation method using two angles of rotation

Günter Schulz  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 32, Issue 7, pp. 1055-1059 (1993)

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The rotation method for the absolute testing of three flats is extended by adding a second rotation of one of the flats. This means that altogether five interferograms of pairs of flats (positional combinations) are evaluated: three basic combinations and two rotational combinations. The effect of random measuring errors is minimized by fully applying least-squares methods. Here the addition of a second rotation leads to a substantial increase of accuracy of the results and enables the lateral resolution to be further enhanced.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: July 29, 1991
Published: March 1, 1993

Günter Schulz, "Absolute flatness testing by an extended rotation method using two angles of rotation," Appl. Opt. 32, 1055-1059 (1993)

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  1. G. D. Dew, “The measurement of optical flatness,” J. Sci. Instrum. 43, 409–415 (1966). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Schulz, “Ein Interferenzverfahren zur absoluten Ebenheitsprifüng längs beliebiger Zentralschnitte,” Opt. Acta 14, 375–388 (1967). [CrossRef]
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  9. J. Grzanna, G. Schulz, “Absolute testing of flatness standards at square-grid points,” Opt. Commun. 77, 107–112 (1990). [CrossRef]
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  11. For example, the first line, which is denoted by Eq. (2.1), represents the 2N equationsx-N+1+yN-1=a-N+1,x-N+2+yN-2=a-N+2,…….x0+y0=a0…….xN+y-N=aN.

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