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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 32, Iss. 7 — Mar. 1, 1993
  • pp: 1055–1059

Absolute flatness testing by an extended rotation method using two angles of rotation

Günter Schulz  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 32, Issue 7, pp. 1055-1059 (1993)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.32.001055


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Abstract

The rotation method for the absolute testing of three flats is extended by adding a second rotation of one of the flats. This means that altogether five interferograms of pairs of flats (positional combinations) are evaluated: three basic combinations and two rotational combinations. The effect of random measuring errors is minimized by fully applying least-squares methods. Here the addition of a second rotation leads to a substantial increase of accuracy of the results and enables the lateral resolution to be further enhanced.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: July 29, 1991
Published: March 1, 1993

Citation
Günter Schulz, "Absolute flatness testing by an extended rotation method using two angles of rotation," Appl. Opt. 32, 1055-1059 (1993)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-32-7-1055


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References

  1. G. D. Dew, “The measurement of optical flatness,” J. Sci. Instrum. 43, 409–415 (1966). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Schulz, “Ein Interferenzverfahren zur absoluten Ebenheitsprifüng längs beliebiger Zentralschnitte,” Opt. Acta 14, 375–388 (1967). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Schwider, “Ein Interferenzverfahren zur Absolutprüfung von Planflächennormalen. II,” Opt. Acta 14, 389–400(1967). [CrossRef]
  4. G. Schulz, J. Schwider, C. Hiller, B. Kicker, “Establishing an optical flatness standard,” Appl. Opt. 10, 929–934 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. G. Birch, M. G. Cox, “Calculation of the flatness of surfaces; a least-squares approach,” NPL Rep. MOM5 (National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK, December1973).
  6. G. Schulz, J. Schwider, “Interferometric testing of smooth surfaces,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1976), Vol. 13, Chap. 4. [CrossRef]
  7. B. Fritz, “Absolute calibration of an optical flat,” Opt. Eng. 23, 379–383 (1984).
  8. D. A. Ketelsen, D. S. Anderson, “Optical testing with large liquid flats,” in Advances in Fabrication and Metrology for Optics and Large Optics, J. B. Arnold, R. E. Parks, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.966, 365–371 (1988).
  9. J. Grzanna, G. Schulz, “Absolute testing of flatness standards at square-grid points,” Opt. Commun. 77, 107–112 (1990). [CrossRef]
  10. G. Schulz, J. Grzanna, “Absolute flatness testing by the rotation method with optimal measuring error compensation,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3767–3780 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. For example, the first line, which is denoted by Eq. (2.1), represents the 2N equationsx-N+1+yN-1=a-N+1,x-N+2+yN-2=a-N+2,…….x0+y0=a0…….xN+y-N=aN.

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