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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 32, Iss. 8 — Mar. 10, 1993
  • pp: 1304–1310

Computer-generated holograms for optical neural networks: on-axis versus off-axis geometry

Paul E. Keller and Arthur F. Gmitro  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 32, Issue 8, pp. 1304-1310 (1993)

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For optical neural networks implemented with computer-generated planar holograms the space–bandwidth product of the hologram is a major consideration. Off-axis holograms can be fabricated with a single binary transmission mask. However, the carrier frequency greatly increases the space–bandwidth product. On axis-holograms use a lower space–bandwidth product to encode interconnections but require a multilevel phase transmission profile. Significant errors can result during the fabrication of multilevel phase structures. With modification of the on-axis geometry the effects of the fabrication errors can be reduced while a lower space–bandwidth product per interconnection is retained. The interconnection accuracy, the diffraction efficiency, the and sensitivity to fabrication errors are compared for the off-axis, the on-axis, and the modified on-axis diffraction geometries.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: June 12, 1992
Published: March 10, 1993

Paul E. Keller and Arthur F. Gmitro, "Computer-generated holograms for optical neural networks: on-axis versus off-axis geometry," Appl. Opt. 32, 1304-1310 (1993)

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