OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 33, Iss. 16 — Jun. 1, 1994
  • pp: 3342–3347

Refractive-index profiling of planar gradient-index waveguides by phase-measuring microinterferometry

Matgorzata Sochacka, Elena Lopez Lago, and Zbigniew Jaroszewicz  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 33, Issue 16, pp. 3342-3347 (1994)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1097 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A novel measurement technique based on phase-stepping microinterferometry is proposed for the refractive-index profiling of planar waveguides fabricated by ion exchange in glass. The sample preparation simplicity and easy instrumental implementation, together with high accuracy and improved resolution, are argued.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: July 27, 1993
Revised Manuscript: December 2, 1993
Published: June 1, 1994

Matgorzata Sochacka, Elena Lopez Lago, and Zbigniew Jaroszewicz, "Refractive-index profiling of planar gradient-index waveguides by phase-measuring microinterferometry," Appl. Opt. 33, 3342-3347 (1994)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1002 (1988). [CrossRef]
  2. S. N. Houde-Walter, D. T. Moore, “Delta-n control in GRIN glass by additives in AgCl diffusion baths,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3373–3378 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Albert, G. L. Yip, “Stress induced index change for K+–Na+ ion exchange in glass,” Electron. Lett. 23, 737–738 (1987). [CrossRef]
  4. J. M. White, P. F. Heidrich, “Optical waveguide refractive index profiles determined from measurement of mode indices: a simple analysis,” Appl. Opt. 15, 151–155 (1976). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Srivastava, C. K. Kao, R. V. Ramaswamy, “WKB analysis of planar surface waveguides with truncated index profiles,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 1605–1609 (1987). [CrossRef]
  6. B. X. Chen, H. Hamanaka, K. Iwamura, “Recovery of refractive index profiles of planar graded-index waveguides from measured mode indices: an iteration method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1301–1305 (1992). [CrossRef]
  7. J. Steffen, A. Neyer, E. Voges, “Direct measurement of refractive index profiles of Ti:LiNbO3 planar and stripe waveguides by reflectivity profiling,” in Integrated Guided Wave Optics, Vol. 4 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 121–124.
  8. S. Ruschin, J.-Y. Xu, H. Chung, W. S. C. Chang, “A filtered-transform scanning microscopic method for refractive-index profiling of optical waveguide and surface profiling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1703–1708 (1990). [CrossRef]
  9. R. Goring, M. Rothhardt, “Application of the refracted near field technique to multimode planar and channel waveguides in glass,” J. Opt. Commun. 7, 82–85 (1986). [CrossRef]
  10. D. Jestel, E. Voges, “Refracted near field characterization of ion exchange glass waveguides and device simulation,” in Fifth European Conference on Integrated Optics: ECIO ’89, A. Carenco, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. R. Papuchon, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1141, 185–190 (1989).
  11. R. Göring, T. Possner, “Accurate and effective method for measuring one- and two-dimensional refractive index gradients,” in Proceedings of the Tenth Topical Meeting on Gradient Index Optical Elements and Systems (University Publishers, Santiago de Composela, Spain, 1992), pp. 201–204.
  12. M. Sochacka, “Phase-stepping approach for data acquisition for refractive index profiling of optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).
  13. M. Sochacka, Z. Jaroszewicz, “Refractive index profiling of the GRIN slab waveguides by phase measuring interferometry,” in Proceedings of the Tenth Topical Meeting on Gradient Index Optical Elements and Systems (University Publishers, Santiago de Composela, Spain, 1992), postdeadline paper 5.
  14. Instrument made by Logitech, Materials Technologists and Engineers, Glasgow, Scotland, U.K.
  15. Instrument made by Polish Optical Works, Warsaw, Poland.
  16. M. Pluta, “A double refracting interference microscope with variable image duplication and half-shade eyepiece,” J. Phys. E 2, 685–690 (1969). [CrossRef]
  17. M. Pluta, “A double refracting interference microscope with continuously variable amount and direction of wavefront shear,” Opt. Acta 18, 661–675 (1971). [CrossRef]
  18. M. Pluta, Advanced Light Microscopy (Polish Scientific, Warsaw, 1989), Vol. 2, Chap. 7.4, pp. 183–197.
  19. R. Gonzalez, P. Wintz, Digital Image Processing (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1987), Chap. 4, pp. 139–201.
  20. J. H. Bruning, D. R. Herriott, J. E. Gallagher, D. P. Rosenfeld, A. D. White, D. J. Brangaccio, “Digital wavefront measuring interferometer for testing surfaces and lenses,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2693–2703 (1974). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. K. Creath, “Phase-measurement interferometry techniques,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1988), Vol. 26, pp. 349–393. [CrossRef]
  22. M. Sochacka, F. Le Provost, “Microscopic implementation of phase-stepping interferometry for dielectric surface evaluation in transmitted light,” Opt. Appl. (to be published).
  23. J. Schwider, R. Burow, K.-E. Elssner, J. Grzanna, R. Spolaczyk, K. Merkel, “Digital wave-front measuring interferometry: some systematic error sources,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3421–3432 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R. Pawluczyk, “Coherent noise elimination in holographic microscope,” Opt. Commun. 7, 366–370 (1973). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited