OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 33, Iss. 19 — Jul. 1, 1994
  • pp: 4184–4192

Mueller-matrix ellipsometry using the division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter: a study of depolarization effects

Shankar Krishnan and Paul C. Nordine  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 33, Issue 19, pp. 4184-4192 (1994)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.33.004184


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1015 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A fully automated Mueller-matrix ellipsometer with a division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter as the polarization-state detector is described. This device achieves Mueller-matrix ellipsometry by measuring the Stokes parameters of reflected light as a function of the fast axis C of a quarter-wave retarder, which, in combination with a fixed linear polarizer, determines the polarization state of incident light. The reflected Stokes parameters were Fourier analyzed to give the 16 elements of the Mueller matrix. We investigated depolarization of polarized light on reflection from rough, heterogeneous, and anisotropic surfaces by obtaining measurements on rolled aluminum and plant leaves. The results demonstrate (1) a variation of degree of polarization of reflected light with the input polarization state, (2) the precision with which the measured matrices describe the depolarization results, (3) effects of surface anisotropy (rolling direction) on depolarization and cross polarization by reflection from aluminum surfaces, and (4) large values and differences in the depolarization effects from conifer and deciduous leaves. Depolarization of light reflected by the aluminum surfaces was most sensitive to the angle between the plane of incidence and the rolling direction when the incident Stokes parameters S1, S2, and S3 were equal.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: April 5, 1993
Revised Manuscript: October 28, 1993
Published: July 1, 1994

Citation
Shankar Krishnan and Paul C. Nordine, "Mueller-matrix ellipsometry using the division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter: a study of depolarization effects," Appl. Opt. 33, 4184-4192 (1994)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-33-19-4184


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. O. Hunderi, “Optics of rough surfaces, discontinuous films and heterogeneous materials,” Surf. Sci. 96, 1–31 (1980). [CrossRef]
  2. R. M. A. Azzam, “Arrangement of four photodetectors for measuring the state of polarization,” Opt. Lett. 10, 309–311 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. M. A. Azzam, E. Masetti, I. M. Elminyawi, A. M. El-Saba, “Construction, calibration, and testing of a four-detector photopolarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 84–88 (1988). [CrossRef]
  4. R. M. A. Azzam, “Division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter (DOAP) for the simultaneous measurement of all four Stokes parameters of light,” Opt. Acta 29, 685–689 (1982). [CrossRef]
  5. R. M. A. Azzam, “Beam splitters for the division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter (DOAP),” Opt. Acta 32, 767–777 (1985). [CrossRef]
  6. S. Krishnan, “Calibration, properties, and applications of the division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter at 632.8 and 1523 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1615–1622 (1992). [CrossRef]
  7. D. A. Ramsey, “Mueller-matrix ellipsometry involving extremely rough surfaces,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1985).
  8. M. W. Williams, “Depolarization and cross polarization in ellipsometry of rough surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3616–3622 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Brosseau, “Analysis of experimental data for Mueller polarization matrices,” Optik 85, 83–86 (1990).
  10. S. R. Cloude, “Conditions for the physical realizability of matrix operators in polarimetry,” in Polarization Considerations for Optical Systems II, R. A. Chipman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1166, 177–185 (1989).
  11. W. S. Bickel, J. Y. Hsu, S. C. Chiao, D. Abromson, V. Iafelice, “The Mueller matrix–Stokes vector representation of surface scattering,” in Polarization Considerations for Optical Systems, R. A. Chipman, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 891, 32–39 (1988).
  12. R. M. A. Azzam, “Mueller-matrix ellipsometry using the four-detector photopolarimeter,” Opt. Lett. 11, 270–272 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. M. A. Azzam, K. A. Giardina, A. G. Lopez, “Conventional and generalized Mueller-matrix ellipsometry using the four-detector photopolarimeter,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1583–1588 (1991). [CrossRef]
  14. R. M. A. Azzam, A. G. Lopez, “Accurate calibration of the four-detector photopolarimeter with imperfect polarizing elements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 1513–1521 (1989). [CrossRef]
  15. R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1987), Chaps. 1–3.
  16. P. S. Hauge, “Mueller-matrix ellipsometry with imperfect compensators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1519–1528 (1978). [CrossRef]
  17. A. J. Hunt, D. R. Huffman, “A new polarization-modulated light scattering instrument,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 1753–1762 (1973). [CrossRef]
  18. P. S. Hauge, “Automated Mueller-matrix ellipsometry,” Opt. Commun. 17, 74–76 (1976). [CrossRef]
  19. R. M. A. Azzam, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, La. 70148 (personal communication, March1993).
  20. J. E. Kalshoven, P. W. Dabney, “An airborne laser polarimeter system (ALPS) for terrestrial physics research,” in Recent Advances in Sensors, Radiometer, and Data Processing for Remote Sensing, P. N. Slater, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 924, 33–35 (1988).
  21. J. E. Kalshoven, P. W. Dabney, “Remote sensing of the Earth’s surface with an airborne polarized laser,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 31, 438–446 (1993). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited