OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 33, Iss. 31 — Nov. 1, 1994
  • pp: 7501–7510

Highly sensitive optical measurement techniques based on acousto-optic devices

P. A. Gass, S. Schalk, and J. R. Sambles  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 33, Issue 31, pp. 7501-7510 (1994)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1142 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



An optical measurement technique is presented that permits a direct measurement of the differential transmission or reflectivity of a sample. The technique is based on the use of an acousto-optic device to modulate rapidly the incident angle or wavelength of the probe beam. Detection of the resulting modulated signal by means of a lock-in amplifier gives a direct measure of the differential optical properties of the sample. It is demonstrated that this direct measurement of the differential can strongly enhance normally undetectable optical features, such as weakly coupled, Otto geometry surface plasmon polaritons. A development of the technique, which uses the optical analog of a phase-locked loop, is demonstrated to have an angular resolution of 6 × 10−6 deg. This permits the detection of the shift in the critical angle caused by a change of 10−6 in the refractive index of a gas mixture.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: August 3, 1993
Revised Manuscript: April 15, 1994
Published: November 1, 1994

P. A. Gass, S. Schalk, and J. R. Sambles, "Highly sensitive optical measurement techniques based on acousto-optic devices," Appl. Opt. 33, 7501-7510 (1994)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. I. Kurtz, R. Dwelle, P. Katzka, “Rapid scanning fluorescence spectroscopy using an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1996–2003 (1987). [CrossRef]
  2. W. S. Ship, J. Biggins, C. W. Wade, “Performance characteristics of an electronically tunable acousto-optic filter for fast scanning spectrophotometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 565–569 (1976). [CrossRef]
  3. C. C. Speake, M. Lawrence, “Dynamical precision angle measurement with an acousto-optic beam deflector,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1254–1257 (1988). [CrossRef]
  4. J. Sapreil, Acousto-Optics (Wiley, New York, 1979).
  5. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
  6. A. Otto, “Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves on silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. 216, 398–410 (1968). [CrossRef]
  7. E. Kretschmann, H. Raether, “Radiative decay of nonradiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. 23a, 2135–2136 (1968).
  8. A. W. Warner, D. L. White, W. A. Bonner, “Acousto-optic light deflectors using optical activity in paratellurite,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 4489–4495 (1972). [CrossRef]
  9. G. W. Bradberry, J. R. Sambles, “The excitation of infrared surface plasmon-polaritons on refractory metals,” Opt. Commun. 67, 404–408 (1988). [CrossRef]
  10. F. Yang, G. W. Bradberry, J. R. Sambles, “Infrared surface plasmon-polaritons on Ni, Pd and Pt,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1405–1410 (1989). [CrossRef]
  11. R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1979).
  12. A. Otto, “The surface polaron resonance in attenuated total reflection,” in Proceedings of the Taormina Conference on Polaritons, E. Burstein, F. De Martini, eds. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1974), pp. 117–121.
  13. P. A. Gass, J. R. Sambles, “The angle-frequency relationship for a practical acousto-optic deflector,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1376–1378 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. M. Bennett, J. L. Stanford, E. J. Ashley, “Optical constants of silver sulfide tarnish films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 224–232 (1970). [CrossRef]
  15. G. J. Kovacs, “Sulphide formation on evaporated Ag films,” Surf. Sci. 78, L245–249 (1978). [CrossRef]
  16. U. Hohm, K. Kerl, “Interferometric measurements of the dipole polarizability alpha of molecules between 300 and 1100 K. I. Monochromatic measurements at gamma = 632.99 nm for the noble gases and H2, N2, O2 and CH4,” Mol. Phys. 69, 803–817 (1990). [CrossRef]
  17. K. Kerl, “Reduced representation of second virial coefficients by straight lines,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 90, 789–794 (1986). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited