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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 33, Iss. 7 — Mar. 1, 1994
  • pp: 1176–1179

Successive development optimization of resist kinoforms manufactured with direct-writing, electron-beam lithography

Michael Larsson, Mats Ekberg, Fredrik Nikolajeff, and Sverker Hård  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 33, Issue 7, pp. 1176-1179 (1994)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.33.001176


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Abstract

It is shown that multilevel SAL 110 resist kinoforms can be developed stepwise. Measurements of the kinoform diffraction pattern, performed between the development steps, permitted correct final developments to be made. No significant relief shape degradation was observed for development times as high as 25 min. The results imply that the electron-beam exposure doses, and hence the exposure time, can be reduced by a factor of 3 compared with doses used currently.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: November 17, 1992
Published: March 1, 1994

Citation
Michael Larsson, Mats Ekberg, Fredrik Nikolajeff, and Sverker Hård, "Successive development optimization of resist kinoforms manufactured with direct-writing, electron-beam lithography," Appl. Opt. 33, 1176-1179 (1994)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-33-7-1176


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References

  1. T. H. P. Chang, “Proximity effect in electron beam lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 1271–1275 (1975). [CrossRef]
  2. M. Ekberg, F. Nikolajeff, M. Larsson, S. Hård, “Proximity-compensated blazed transmission grating manufacture by direct-writing electron-beam lithography,” Appl. Opt. 33, (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, B. Nilsson, “Multilevel phase holograms manufactured by electron beam lithography,” Opt. Lett. 15, 568–569 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, A. Bolle, “Nd:YAG laser machining with multilevel resist kinoforms,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3604–3606 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, J. Turunen, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Westerholm, A. Vasara, “Multilevel grating array illuminators manufactured by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Coinmun. 88, 37–41 (1992). [CrossRef]

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