OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 33, Iss. 7 — Mar. 1, 1994
  • pp: 1203–1208

Optical properties of GeO x films obtained by laser deposition and dc sputtering in a reactive atmosphere

F. Vega, J. C. G. de Sande, C. N. Afonso, C. Ortega, and J. Siejka  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 33, Issue 7, pp. 1203-1208 (1994)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (750 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Optical constants of amorphous GeO x films as a function of wavelength are determined for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, in thin films grown by laser deposition and dc sputtering of Ge in an oxygen environment. We determined the oxygen content of the films by combining nuclear reaction analysis and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Spectroscopic ellipsometry is used to determine the film optical constants. Effective medium modeling is used to simulate the optical properties of the films assuming the films contain a mixture of amorphous Ge and GeO2. The results show that substoichiometric GeO x films behave optically as a mixture of amorphous Ge and GeO2. Films with low oxygen content (x < 1.0) seem to have inhomogeneous oxygen concentrations with depth. The effect of the deposition rate and oxygen pressure (and Ar pressure in sputtered films) on film stoichiometry and optical properties is also discussed.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: May 27, 1992
Revised Manuscript: June 8, 1993
Published: March 1, 1994

F. Vega, J. C. G. de Sande, C. N. Afonso, C. Ortega, and J. Siejka, "Optical properties of GeOx films obtained by laser deposition and dc sputtering in a reactive atmosphere," Appl. Opt. 33, 1203-1208 (1994)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. P. A. Tic, P. L. Bocko, “Optical fiber materials,” in Optical Materials, S. Musikant, ed., Vol. of Optical Materials: A Series of Advances (Dekker, New York, 1990), pp. 175–218.
  2. Z. Yin, B. K. Garside, “Low-loss GeO2 optical waveguide fabrication using low deposition rate rf sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4324–4328 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Ohta, M. Takenaga, N. Akahira, T. Yamashita, “Thermal changes of optical properties observed in some suboxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 8497–8500 (1982). [CrossRef]
  4. J. Beynon, M. M. El-Samanoudy, “Memory phenomena in reactively-evaporated AlOx and GeOx thin films,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 6, 1447–1449 (1987). [CrossRef]
  5. U. J. Gibson, “Ion beam processing of optical thin films,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 152, 105–114 (1989). [CrossRef]
  6. R. K. Singh, J. Narayan, “Pulsed-laser evaporation technique for deposition of thin films: physics and theoretical model,” Phys. Rev. B 41, 8843–8859 (1990). [CrossRef]
  7. H. Izumi, K. Ohata, T. Sawada, T. Morishita, S. Tanaka, “Direct observation of ions in laser plume onto the substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 597–599 (1991). [CrossRef]
  8. J. C. G. de Sande, C. N. Afonso, J. L. Escudero, R. Serna, F. Catalina, E. E. Bernabeu, “Optical properties of laser-deposited a-Ge films: a comparison with sputtered and e-beam-deposited films,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6133–6138 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Slaoui, E. Fogarassy, C. Fuchs, P. Siffert, “Properties of silicon dioxide films prepared by pulsed-laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 590–596 (1992). [CrossRef]
  10. C. N. Afonso, F. Vega, J. Solis, F. Catalina, C. Ortega, J. Siejka, “Laser ablation of Ge in an oxygen environment: plasma and film properties,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 54, 175–179 (1991). [CrossRef]
  11. B. P. Rai, “On the optical absorption edge in thin GeOx films,” Phys. Status Solidi A 100, K189–K193 (1987). [CrossRef]
  12. A. L. Shabalov, M. S. Feldman, “Optical properties of thin GeOx films,” Phys. Status Solidi A 83, K11–K14 (1984). [CrossRef]
  13. J. Beynon, M. M. A. G. El-Samanoudy, S. K. J. Al-Ani, “Optical properties of GeOx thin films,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 8, 786–788 (1989). [CrossRef]
  14. J. Beynon, M. M. El-Samanoudy, E. L. Short, “Evaluation of the composition of reactively evaporated GeOx thin films from optical transmission and XPS data,” J. Mater. Sci. 23, 4363–4368 (1988). [CrossRef]
  15. C. Caperaa, G. Bauda, J. P. Besse, P. Bondot, P. Fessier, M. Jacquet, “Preparation and characterization of germanium oxide thin films,” Mater. Res. Bull. 24, 1361–1367 (1989). [CrossRef]
  16. C. N. Afonso, R. Serna, F. Catalina, D. Bermejo, “Good-quality Ge films grown by excimer laser deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 46, 249–253 (1990). [CrossRef]
  17. D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89, 249–262 (1982). [CrossRef]
  18. L. Pajasova, “Optical properties of GeO2 in the ultraviolet region,” Czech. J. Phys. B 19, 1265–1271 (1969). [CrossRef]
  19. B. Yang, L. J. Pilione, J. E. Yehoda, K. Vedam, R. Messier, “Nonuniformity in void concentration between the initial and final growth stage of sputtered a-Ge films studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 6206–6208 (1987). [CrossRef]
  20. J. E. Yehoda, B. Yang, K. Vedam, R. Messier, “Investigation of the void structure in amorphous germanium thin films as a function of low-energy ion bombardment,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 1631–1635 (1988). [CrossRef]
  21. K. H. Müller, “Ion beam induced epitaxial vapor-phase growth: a molecular-dynamics study,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 7906–7913 (1987). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited