Monte Carlo techniques are used to simulate atmospheric point-spread functions (PSF’s) that are appropriate for the viewing geometries typical of the Airborne Visible–Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). A model sensor is located at an altitude of 20 km and views a Lambertian surface through a horizontally homogeneous and vertically stratified atmosphere. Simulations show the effects on the PSF of variation of the aerosol phase function, the aerosol optical thickness, the sensor viewing angle, and the wavelength. An algorithm that uses the PSF to correct high-contrast images for adjacency effects is developed and applied to an AVIRIS image of Big Pine Key in the Florida Keys. A method to approximate the atmospheric PSF’s without the need to resort to a Monte Carlo simulation is described. Correction of the AVIRIS image through the use of the approximated PSF is consistent with a previous correction. Error analysis is difficult and scene dependent; however, the correction algorithm is shown to be capable of indicating regions of high-contrast images in which conventional estimates of surface-leaving radiance are likely to be unreliable due to adjacency effects.
© 1995 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: September 6, 1994
Revised Manuscript: February 16, 1995
Published: July 20, 1995
Phillip N. Reinersman and Kendall L. Carder, "Monte Carlo simulation of the atmospheric point-spread function with an application to correction for the adjacency effect," Appl. Opt. 34, 4453-4471 (1995)