OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 34, Iss. 25 — Sep. 1, 1995
  • pp: 5817–5822

Experimental study of Cu+–Na+ exchanged glass waveguides

H. Márquez, D. Salazar, A. Villalobos, G. Paez, and J. Ma. Rincón  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 34, Issue 25, pp. 5817-5822 (1995)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (143 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Optical waveguides have been obtained by field-assisted Cu+–Na+ exchanged on glass. The refractive index profiles of the waveguides are determined by means of the prism-coupling technique and Chiang’s method [J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385 (1985)], and they correlate with the index profile calculated as a function of the glass composition. The composition profile is examined with the aid of a scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, and the diffusion process is explained by the one-dimensional diffusion equation.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: September 16, 1994
Revised Manuscript: March 17, 1995
Published: September 1, 1995

H. Márquez, D. Salazar, A. Villalobos, G. Paez, and J. Ma. Rincón, "Experimental study of Cu+–Na+ exchanged glass waveguides," Appl. Opt. 34, 5817-5822 (1995)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchange glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1002 (1988). [CrossRef]
  2. T. Findakly, “Glass waveguides by ion exchange: a review,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244–250 (1985).
  3. R. Ludwing, “Integrated optical components in substrate glasses,” Glastech. Ber. 62, 285–297 (1989).
  4. S. I. Najafi, Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics (Artech, Boston, 1992).
  5. S. Gevorgyan, “Single-step buried waveguides in glass by field-assisted copper ion-exchange,” Electron. Lett. 26, 38–39 (1990). [CrossRef]
  6. K. Kobayashi, “Optical and EPR studies on redox interaction layers of Ag+ and Cu+ ions diffusing into soda-lime glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 20, 21–24 (1979).
  7. S. Sakka, K. Kamiya, K. Kato, “Incorporation of copper into glass by the Cu-Na ion exchange,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 77–90 (1982). [CrossRef]
  8. G. Battaglin, G. Marchi, F. Gonella, A. Losaco, P. Mazzoldi, A. Miotello, A. Quaranta, A. Valentini, “Electromigration process in glass for optoelectronics applications,” Bol. Soc. Esp. Ceram. Vidrio 31-C 3, 133–138 (1992).
  9. H. Marquez, D. Salazar, E. Razon, G. Paez, “Planar optical waveguides in glass by diffusion of copper films,” in Gradient Index Optical Systems, Vol. 12 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 27–30.
  10. W. L. Jolly, The Principles of Inorganic Chemistry (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1976).
  11. C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics (Wiley, New York, 1976).
  12. S. D. Fantone, “Refractive index and spectral models for gradient-index materials,” Appl. Opt. 22, 432–440 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. L. Huggins, “The density of silicate glasses as a function of composition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 420–430 (1940). [CrossRef]
  14. M. L. Huggins, “The refractive index of silicate glasses as a function of composition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 495–504 (1940). [CrossRef]
  15. S. I. Najafi, P. Suchoski, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Silver film-diffused glass waveguides: diffusion and optical properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 2213–2218 (1986). [CrossRef]
  16. X. Li, P. F. Johnson, “A general analytical solution for the concentration profiles of ion-exchanged planar waveguides,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 357–362 (1992). [CrossRef]
  17. H. Marquez, J. Ma. Rincon, L. E. Celaya, “Experimental study of CdCl2-CuCl photochromic coatings,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3699–3703 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. I. Najafi, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Wavelength-dependent propagation characteristics of Ag+–Na+ exchanged planar glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1840–1843 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. K. S. Chiang, “Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385–391 (1985). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited