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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 34, Iss. 34 — Dec. 1, 1995
  • pp: 7888–7898

Compact imaging spectrograph for broadband spectral simultaneity

Marsha R. Torr and D. G. Torr  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 34, Issue 34, pp. 7888-7898 (1995)

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We report on the design of a small spectrograph that is capable of imaging several thousand angstroms simultaneously at a moderate spectral resolution. The prototype instrument included a number of developmental items that were used to assess their utility in this and other applications. Some we would recommend using again, some we would not. In the configuration that was built and tested, the instantaneous wavelength range was chosen to be 3700–11,700 Å. However, the wavelength range could be selected for a lower wavelength, as low as ~1200 Å. The spectral imaging was achieved with an intensified-CCD focal-plane detector. The broad wavelength coverage was achieved with a matrix of four diffraction gratings and a custom-designed photocathode system. The photocathode was specially built to provide a response over the chosen broad wavelength range by use of a single image intensifier. The theoretical spectral resolution of the instrument varied from 12 to 20 Å depending on wavelength segment. A higher spectral resolution can be selected at the expense of total wavelength coverage. The optical system was designed to be moderately fast (f/6) when considered at the level of each of the four optical subchannels and suitable for use on relatively weak airglow signals. The instrument was designed to be readily portable, weighing 15 kg, with an envelope of 37 cm × 37 cm × 48 cm. The advantages and weaknesses of such an instrument are discussed, and improvements are suggested for specific applications. This study represents a stepping stone in the evolution of electronic spectrographs and leads to later designs that are currently being evaluated.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: August 22, 1994
Revised Manuscript: February 10, 1995
Published: December 1, 1995

Marsha R. Torr and D. G. Torr, "Compact imaging spectrograph for broadband spectral simultaneity," Appl. Opt. 34, 7888-7898 (1995)

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  1. M. R. Torr, R. W. Basedow, D. G. Torr, “Imaging spectroscopy of the thermosphere from the Space Shuttle,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4130–4145 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. R. Torr, R. W. Basedow, J. Mount, “An Imaging Spectrometric Observatory for Spacelab,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 92, 237–291 (1983). [CrossRef]
  3. M. R. Torr, J. Devlin, “Intensified charge coupled device for use as a spaceborne spectrographic image plane detector system,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3091–3108 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. R. Torr, D. G. Torr, R. Baum, R. Spielmaker, “Intensified-CCD focal plane detector for space applications: a second generation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2768–2777 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. R. Torr, D. G. Torr, P. Bhatt, W. Swift, H. Dougani, “Ca+ emission in the sunlit ionosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 2379–2387 (1990). [CrossRef]
  6. D. G. Torr, M. R. Torr, P. G. Richards, “Thermospheric airglow emissions: a comparison of measurements from ATLAS-1 and theory,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 519–522 (1993). [CrossRef]
  7. M. R. Torr, D. G. Torr, T. Chang, P. Richards, G. Germany, “The N2 Lyman Birge Hopfield dayglow from ATLAS-1,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 21,397–21,407 (1994). [CrossRef]
  8. M. R. Torr, D. G. Torr, P. G. Richards, T. Chang, W. Swift, N. Li, “Thermospheric nitric oxide from ATLAS-1 and Spacelab 1 missions,” to be published in J. Geophys. Res.100 (1995). [CrossRef]
  9. D. G. Torr, M. R. Torr, W. Swift, J. Fennelly, G. Liu, “Measurements of OH (X2II) in the stratosphere by high resolution UV spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 937–940 (1987). [CrossRef]
  10. M. R. Torr, D. G. Torr, “An imaging spectrometer for high resolution measurements of stratospheric trace constituents in the ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 27, 619–626 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. M. Morgan, D. G. Torr, M. R. Torr, “Preliminary measurements of mesospheric OH X2II by ISO on ATLAS 1,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 511–514 (1993). [CrossRef]
  12. G. S. Hayat, J. Flamand, M. Lacroix, A. Grillo, “Designing a new generation of analytical instruments around the new types of holographic diffraction grating,” Opt. Eng. 14, 420–425 (1975).
  13. D. G. Torr, M. R. Torr, M. Zukic, J. F. Spann, R. B. Johnson, “Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) for ISTP,” Opt. Eng. 32, 3060 (1993). [CrossRef]
  14. M. R. Torr, D. G. Torr, M. Zukic, R. B. Johnson, J. Ajello, P. Banks, K. Clark, K. Cole, G. Parks, B. Tsurutani, “A Far Ultraviolet Imager for the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics Mission,” to be published in Space Sci. Rev. (1995). [CrossRef]
  15. P. Bernhardt, “The NICARE experiments—an overview,” EOS 71, 1506 (1990).
  16. D. G. Torr, M. Zukic, C. Feng, A. Ahmad, W. Swift, “Miniaturized high-resolution NUV–VIS–NIR imaging spectrometer array for FAST SAT applications,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research, J. Wang, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2266, 206 (1994).
  17. D. G. Torr, C. Feng, W. Swift, M. Zukic, “Design for a ground-based spectrometric facility for measuring the terrestrial dayglow from the near-ultraviolet to the near-infrared,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research, J. Wang, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2266, 180 (1994).

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